Bahrain: population and cities
Countryaah website, Bahrain has around 1.2 million residents.
The Islam is the state religion in Bahrain. Muslims make up about 80% in
Bahrain and are made up of Sunnis (40%) and Shiites (60%). Although the Shiite
direction of Islam is numerically the significantly stronger in Bahrain, the
Sunni orientation is preferred by the government, the military and the public
sectors in the country. And the king is also a Sunnis.
In addition to the Muslims, around 9% Christians (Catholics and Protestants)
live in the country. Compared to all other Gulf States, Bahrain is the country
with the largest Christian minority.
A small number of Jews also live in Bahrain. Bahrain is also the only Arab
country on the Persian Gulf that offers a synagogue.
Another 9.8% of the population profess other denominations. The main group are
The national language is Arabic. However, English is widely used as an
educational and commercial language. The most important languages of the
immigrants are Persian and Urdu.
The population of Bahrain is very mixed and is characterized by a very high
proportion of foreign workers. Of the approximately 1,050,000 residents of the
country, 37.5% are not Bahraini. Most of the minorities come from Europe, South
and East Asia (especially Iran, India, Pakistan and the Philippines).
Social profile of the population
The urban-rural divide is very pronounced in Bahrain. Almost 90% live in the
country's urban regions, especially in the capital Manama.
The current unemployment rate in Bahrain averages around 15%.
As for the age distribution, in 2004 27.5% of Bahraini were under 15 years
old. Between 1994 and 2004, Bahrain's population grew by an average of 2.4%,
with life expectancy in the country in 2004 being 75 years.
Bahrain, which has had a fairly good social security system since 1976 and
offers free medical care, has planned to introduce compulsory
education. However, this has not yet been introduced. In 2004 the illiteracy
rate among men was 11%. In women it even leveled off at 16%.
As for the economic situation, in Bahrain it is determined by oil and aluminum
exports and the related industries. At 12%, oil and gas look rather modest,
along with the 2/3 share of the gross national product that the service sector
generates. But oil and gas generate 77% of the total government revenue and
therefore the total budget of Bahrain.
At the moment the country is still very dependent on oil. This strong dependency
has, however, been recognized. Attempts are made to balance them out by
restructuring the economy and diversifying industry.
With 7 billion US dollars, Bahrain is shielded abroad.
Capital and other cities
Manama, capital and largest city of the country
Manama, the capital of Bahrain, is also the largest agglomeration of
the country. The actual city has around 200,000 residents - around 630,000 in
the entire metropolitan area.
More big cities in Bahrain are
al-Muharraq, approx. 98,000
ar-Rifa al-gharbi, approx. 95,000
Madinat Hamad, approx. 65,000
Bahrain: geography, map
Islands that make up the state
After Bahrain returned the island of Jenan to Qatar in 2001, the island
nation consists of three larger and 29 smaller islands, all of which extend into
the Persian Gulf. The islands, which stretch about 25 km from Saudi Arabia and
about 30 km from Qatar, are generally flat. Only the 134 meter high Jabal ad
Dukhan is the exception.
Defined by DigoPaul, the main island is the island of Bahrain, aka Al Bahrayn. It made up 83% of the
total land area and measures 572 km². It is little more than a limestone plateau
between 30 and 60 meters high, but it has the important advantage of having
enough fresh water. Otherwise the island is mainly covered by sand dunes. The
134-meter-high Jabal ad-Duchan rises in the center of the island, whereas in the
south and southwest of the island there are sandy areas and salt marshes. Only
the north of the island can be used for agriculture.
The second largest island in Bahrain is Al-Muharraq. Bahrain's second largest
city, Al-Muharraq, and the country's international airport are located on this
island, which is just six kilometers long. Al-Muharraq is connected by a road to
the tiny island of Jazirat al Azl, which is the main dry dock and the main ship
repair facility in Bahrain. To the south of Jazirat al Azl is the island of
Sitrah, where the oil export terminal is also located.
There are important fresh water sources on the island of Nabi Salah.
The state prison was once located on the rocky island of Jiddah. Today the large
rock formation is used as a holiday resort.
Most of the remaining islands are uninhabited and only used by migratory
birds. Many of Bahrain's islands are rugged and rocky. Often they barely rise
from the Persian Gulf.
Area and land use
Bahrain has a total area of 665 km². From north to south the island
measures a length of just 48 kilometers, and at its widest point the island
kingdom is 16 kilometers wide.
Bahrain is made up of three larger and 29 smaller mostly flat islands that are
located in the Persian Gulf. Fresh water is only available in sufficient
quantities on the main island of Bahrain (aka Al Bahrayn), where vast date
groves and irrigated orchards and vegetable gardens spread out in the northern
part. Otherwise, the main island is a limestone plateau between 30 and 60 meters
high, which is mainly covered by sand dunes. While salt marshes and sandy areas
extend in the south and southwest of the island, only the northern coastal area
is agriculturally usable. Many of the other (smaller) islands in Bahrain are
rocky and often barely rise above sea level.
The respective proportions of the total area of the country are:
- Land suitable for culture
Around 3% of the land
- Permanent cultivation land
Around 6% of the land
- Rest of
the country About 92% of the country cannot be used for civilization or only
to a very limited extent.
- Oil wells
The oil wells that are so important for the
country are almost all located near the Jabal ad Dukhan mountain.
Bahrain has recognized that the very intensively used oil and natural gas
reserves will in all probability be exhausted in 2015. Even if new oil has been
sought since 2008, the country had to develop other economic sectors. For
example, extensive experiments have been carried out to breed fish cultures in
exploited boreholes, which has happened in the region around Hawar in
particular. The country continues to rely on aluminum exports (but has been
since 1971) and has already achieved a world market share of around 3% in this
area. In addition to shipbuilding, our own automobile production has also become
an important economic factor. But the textile industry, the third most important
branch of industry, is also on the rise. The soon to be missing oil reserves
will also be made up for by Bahrain's role as one of the most important
financial service centers in the Middle East. Tourism is also promoted. This is
mainly animated in Arabic. In this regard, around 7 million visitors currently
come to the small city of Bahrain, which is popular not least because of the
serving of alcohol. Visitors from the west are more of an exception, as the
country has hardly any beaches.
National borders, length of coast
Bahrain has no borders to other countries, because the island kingdom is
completely surrounded by the Persian Gulf. The country is about 25 kilometers
from the east coast of Saudi Arabia and about 30 kilometers from
the Qatar peninsula.
The state has around 160 km of coastline to the Persian Gulf, which completely
surrounds the island kingdom.
Longitude and latitude
Bahrain extends over the following geographical latitude (abbreviation Δφ)
and longitude (abbreviation Δλ):
|Δφ = from 26 ° 28 'to 25 ° 37' north latitude
Δλ = from 50 ° 21 'to 50 ° 22' east longitude
You can find detailed information on this subject under Longitude and
For Bahrain, the following value applies to Central European Time (CET), i.e.
the time (without summer time). A minus sign means that it is earlier there and
a plus sign that it is later than after CET:
Further and detailed explanations of the time can be found under Time zones,
Highest sun in Manama
Manama lies at a northern latitude of around φ = 26 °.
If the sun is at the tropic, i.e. at δ = 23.5 °, summer starts in Manama. This
is June 21st. Then, for the highest position of the sun at noon, according to
Eq. 1 (see position of the sun Then for the highest position of the sun at noon
according to Eq. 1 (see position of the sun):
26 ° = (90 ° - h) + 23.5 °,
At 139.5 °, the sun in Manama has the highest level of the entire year above
the horizon (more precisely: above the horizon).
Jabal ad Dukhan
The island kingdom of Bahrain is very flat. The highest point is Jabal
ad Dukhan, the “mountain of smoke”, which is just 134 meters high and stands in
the center of the main island aka Al Bahrayn. The vast majority of the kingdom's
oil wells are located in the vicinity.
rivers and lakes
In Bahrain there are no lakes to speak of and no permanently flowing
rivers. However, there are numerous natural springs in the north of the main
island and on adjacent islands. Below the Gulf of Bahrain, smaller fresh water
reserves can be used to provide drinking water.
The Persian Gulf
Bahrain is completely surrounded by the Persian Gulf.