Colombia: population, cities
Countryaah website, Colombia has about 50 million residents.
Mestizo 58%; Europeans 20%; Mulatto 14%; Africans 4%; other 4%
affiliation Catholics 95%; other 5%
Capital, other cities
The capital of Colombia is Bogotá, with a population of around 8 million.
Other cities are:
- Cali with around 1,986,000 residents
- Medellín with around 1,971,000 residents
- Barranquilla with around 1,158,000 residents
- Cartagena with around 813,000 residents
- Cútuta with around 589,000 residents.
Colombia: geography, map
Defined by DigoPaul, Colombia is located on the strategically important north coast of South
America. It has the only mainland connection to the states of Central America
and borders both the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean.
Area, land use and national borders
Colombia covers an area of 1.14 million km².
Around 44% of the country is forested.
- Meadows and pasture land
Around 26% of the land is used as meadow or pasture land.
- Arable land and fields
Around 6% of the land is used as arable land or fields.
Colombia is located in the northwest of South America and has a common border
with a total of five countries. There are limits to:
- Brazil with a length of around 1,645 km
- Ecuador with a length of around 590 km
- Panama with a length of around 225 km
- Peru with a length of around 1,626 km
- Venezuela with a length of around 2,050 km.
Colombia has a coastline of around 1,760 km to the Caribbean Sea and around
1,448 km to the Pacific Ocean.
In Cartagena the mean tidal range is only around 0.3 m.
For detailed explanations of ebb and flow, see Tides, Ebb and Flow.
The world's highest tidal range can be found in the Bay of Fundy in Canada,
where it is up to 16 meters, and at spring tide even over 20 meters. The Bay of
Fundy is located on the Atlantic between the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick
and Nova Scotia, which is called Nova Scotia in German and whose capital is
On the German North Sea coast it varies between one and three meters. In the
western Baltic Sea, on the other hand, the tidal range is only 0.3 meters, while
it is barely noticeable in the eastern Baltic Sea.
Longitude and latitude
Colombia extends over the following geographical latitude (abbreviation Δφ)
and geographical longitude (abbreviation Δλ):
|Δφ = from 12 ° 15 'N to 4 ° 21' S
|Δλ = from 66 ° 45 'W to 78 ° 52' W.
You can find detailed information on this subject under Longitude and
For Colombia, the following value applies to Central European Time (CET),
i.e. the time without summer time. A minus sign means that it is earlier there,
a plus sign that it is later than CET.
Further and detailed explanations of the time can be found under Time zones,
The highest point of the sun in Bogota
Bogota in Colombia is located at a north latitude of around φ 04.5 °.
If the sun, or its pixel, is over Bogota, i.e. at 04 ° 30 'N, the sun is exactly
perpendicular over the city. This happens exactly twice a year, roughly 17 days
after March 21 and 17 days before September 21.
For more information, see Sun Position.
If the image point of the sun (declination) is north of the latitude of Bogota,
the sun is not in the south at noon, as in our latitudes, but in the north. So
the sun moves from east to north to west, where it sets.
Pico Cristobal Colón,
The highest mountain in the country is the Pico Cristobal Colón, which is
located in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta and has an altitude of 5,800
meters. The mountain is about km from the coast to the Karik
Pico Simón Bolívar
The Pico Simón Bolívar reaches a height of 5,775 m and is located in
the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. The mountain is about km from the coast to the
Nevado del Huila
The Nevado de Huila is an active volcano that reaches an altitude of 5,750
m. Its last outbreak occurred in November 2008, which claimed several lives. The
mountain is the highest volcano north of the equator. The mountain is located in
the south-west of the country around km from the sea.
Nevado del Tolima
The Nevado del Tolima is a 5,200 m high volcano. it is located together with the
Nevado del Ruiz and the Nevado de Santa Isabel in the Parque de los Nevados
National Park in the Andes. Its height is also given as 5,615 m. The summit
region is glaciated and covered with snow.
Nevado del Ruiz
The Nevado del Ruiz is an active volcano and has an altitude of 5,390
m. After the Nevado de Huila, it is the second highest active volcano north of
the Equator. Its summit is covered with glaciers and snow on an area of
approx. 25 km². The mountain lies together with the Nevado del Tolima and the
Nevado de Santa Isabel in the Parque de los Nevados National Park in the Andes
A spectacular eruption occurred on November 13, 1985, about 2.5 hours later a
mudslide (lahars) in the city of Armero, about 50 km away, buried numerous
buildings and over 22,000 people.
The Puracé is an active volcano with an altitude of 4,755 m, which is in the
Central Cordillera in the province. Cauca is located in the national park of the
same name. The following rivers have their source in the national park: the Rio
Magdalena, the Rio Cauca, the Rio Caquetá and the Rio Patia.
For those particularly interested in culture, it should be mentioned that the
natural scientist Alexander von Humboldt () climbed the mountain in November
The Galeras is a 4,275 m high active stratovolcano, which has a crater diameter
of 320 m and a crater depth of 80 m. It is near the town of Pasto.
The volcano last erupted in February 2009, but since around 8,000 people had
been evacuated from the province of Nariño in time, there were no victims to
Azufral de Tuquerres
The Azufral de Tuquerres is a stratovolcano located in the south-west of the
country. The summit of the volcano consists of a caldera with a diameter of 2.5
km x 3 km and a rhyodacite lava dome complex.
The Pico Codazzi has a height of 4,859 m. The mountain is
The longest river in the country is the Río Magdalena with a length of
around 1,550 km. It rises in the Central Cordillera in the Laguna de Magdalena
in the national park and flows into the Caribbean in the north of the country.
The Río Cauca is a tributary of the Río Magdalena and has a length of
around 1,350 km. It flows between the central and western cordillera in the
Andes. Its source is in the Sotará plateau in the province of Cauca, near the
town of Popayán. At the town of Mompós the river flows into the Río Magdalena.
The Río Caquetá (in Brazil: Japurá) has a total length of 2,815 km. It rises in
the Andes - east of Pasto - and flows into the Amazon at Tefé in Brazil over
numerous river arms.
Río Guainía, Río Negro
The 2,255 km long Río Negro rises under the name Río Guainía in the southeast of
Colombia in the province of Guainía. From there it runs east and later south,
where it forms the border between Colombia and Venezuela. This river is one of
the largest tributaries of the Amazon. Its water then finally reaches the
Atlantic via the Amazon
The Río Meta is a 1,200 km long river. The Meta is fed by the rivers Humea,
Guayuriba and Guatiquía on the high altitudes of the Sumapaz on the eastern
cordillera of the Andes.
It then flows through the eastern Llanos of Colombia and flows between Puerto
Carreño in Colombia and Puerto Páez in Venezuela in the Orinoco. The Río Meta
plays an important role in the movement of goods with Venezuela.
The Río Guaviare is an approximately 1,495 km long tributary of the Orinocos. It
arises from the Ariari and the Guayabero rivers, whose sources lie in the
eastern cordillera of the Andes. The river is navigable for over 600 km. Its
confluence with the Orinoco lies in Venezuela - across from San Fernando de
The Río Vaupes is a tributary of the Rio Negro, into which it flows after around
1,375 km - around 40 km south of Icana.
The Río Putumayo is a tributary of the Amazon. After a distance of around 1,815
km in Brazil it flows into the Amazon - near San Antônio do Içá. In Brazil, the
river is also called Içá. In Brazil, the river is navigable and is used by
rubber manufacturers to transport their goods.
The only about 650 km long Río Tomo flows through the east of
Colombia (Llanos). For the first 100 km the river is only a few meters wide and
only then does it widen to up to 20 m during the dry season and to over 100 m
during the rainy season. The Río Tomo flows into the Río Orinoco at the border
with Venezuela, which then forms the eastern border between Colombia and
Venezuela. There are numerous spectacular rapids here.
The Río Bogotá has a length of only 375 km and is a tributary of the Río
Magdalena. It rises north of Bogotá - hence the name. It then flows through the
west of Bogotá and the city of Soacha.
A little below the village of El Charquito, the river falls about 150 m over the
Salto (= waterfall) del Tequendama. Because of the great height differences up
to the confluence with the Río Magdalena near the city of Girardot, there are a
number of hydroelectric plants in the course of the river. Incidentally, the Río
Bogotá is one of the most polluted rivers in America.
The country includes numerous smaller and larger reservoirs:
The Alberto Lleras Dam
The Alberto Lleras Dam with an area of 13.44 km²
La Esmeralda with an area of 12.28 km².
There is also the Guatavita Bergsee with an average diameter of 1.6 km.
The country has a few islands in the Caribbean and the Pacific Ocean: a
total of less than 65 km², an archipelago in the Caribbean that forms the San
Andrés y Providencia Intendency, Santa Catalina, Roncador, Quita
Sueño, Serrana and Serranilla, whose ownership is
disputed, and a prison colony in the Pacific on Gorgona and
the island of Malpelo west of Buenaventura.
Pacific and Caribbean
The Pacific Ocean is also known as the Pacific, Pacific, or Great Ocean. At
1,448 in length, Colombia borders the Pacific Ocean, the largest and deepest
ocean in the world. It stretches between the Arctic, North, Central and South
America as well as the Antarctic, Australia, Oceania and Asia. It has a gigantic
area of 166.24 million km² (not including secondary seas) and therefore covers
around 35% of the entire surface of the earth.
The Caribbean Sea covers an area of 2,754,000 km² and is a tributary of
the Atlantic and lies between the islands of the Caribbean and the American
continent. Together with the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean forms the "American
Mediterranean". Detailed descriptions of the two seas under the following links: