Estonia: population and cities
Countryaah website, Estonia has around 1.34 million residents.
The Estonians make up 69% of the population, the other larger nationality groups
are: Russians with 26% (about 345,000), Ukrainians with 2%, Belarusians with 1%
and Finns with 1%.
The Estonians mainly belong to the Evangelical Lutheran Church, but the Greek
Orthodox, Russian Orthodox, Baptist, Methodist and Roman Catholic Churches are
The national language is Estonian, heard the ugurischen Finn to the family of
languages. It is therefore relatively easy for Estonians to learn Finnish. The
official language of Estonia is Estonian, but Russian is spoken a lot, which the
traveler will quickly realize. Anyone who does not speak both languages can
communicate well in German or English. In general, one can say that old people
understand German better, the younger ones speak better English.
Capital, other cities
The capital of Estonia is Tallinn (also known as the former Hanseatic city of
Reval) with approx. 417,150 residents.
Other cities are:
The university city of Tartu with approx. 101,300 residents, the oldest
city in Estonia, which is of particular importance due to the Estonian national
movement that arose here. The industrial cities of Narva, the
border town to Russia is and was, with approx. 67,400 residents and Kohtla-Järve with
approx. 46,300 residents and the health resort Pärnu with
approx. 44,600 residents.
Estonia: geography, map
Area and land use
Defined by DigoPaul, Estonia covers an area of 45,227 km².
Around 50% of the country is forested.
- Meadow/pasture land
Around 7% of the land is used as meadow or pasture land.
- Arable land and fields
Around 27% of the land is used as arable land or fields, especially for
growing grain, potatoes and vegetables.
Almost a fifth of the area of Estonia is covered by swamps, the largest of
which are in the central and eastern parts of the country.
There are no mountains in Estonia.
- Latvia with a border length of 339 km,
- Russia with a border length of 294 km.
Estonia has a coast to the Baltic Sea with a length of around 3,000 km.
In Estonia, the mean tidal range of the Baltic Sea is between 20 and 40
cm. (For a detailed explanation of ebb and flow, see Tides, Ebb and Flow).
Incidentally, the world's highest tidal range can be found in the Bay of Fundy
in Canada, where it is up to 16 meters, and at spring tide even over 20
meters. The Bay of Fundy is located on the Atlantic between the Canadian
provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, which is called Nova Scotia in
German and whose capital is Halifax. On the German North Sea coast it varies
between one and three meters. In the western Baltic Sea, on the other hand, the
tidal range is only 0.3 meters, while it is barely noticeable in the eastern
Longitude and latitude
Estonia extends over the following geographical latitude (abbreviation Δφ)
and geographical longitude (abbreviation Δλ):
|Δφ = from around 57 ° to 59 ° north latitude
Δλ = from around 21 ° to 28 ° east longitude
You can find detailed information on this subject under Longitude and
For Estonia, the following value applies to Central European Time (CET). A
minus sign means that it is earlier there, a plus sign that it is later than
Further and detailed explanations of the time can be found under Time zones,
The highest point of the sun in Tallinn
Tallinn lies at a north latitude of around φ = 59.5 °. If the sun, or its
image point, is at the northern tropic, i.e. at δ = 23.5 °, summer begins in
Tallinn, this is June 21. Then, for the highest position of the sun at noon,
according to Eq. 1 (see position of the sun):
59.5 ° = (90 ° - h) + 23.5 °
At 54 °, the sun in Tallinn has the highest level of the entire year above
the horizon (more precisely: above the horizon).
The highest mountain in the country is the Suur Munamägi with a height of only
318 m. The Suur Munamägi is also the highest peak in the entire Baltic region.
There are only a few rivers in Estonia that are longer than 100 km.
Emajõgi, Võhandu, Pärnu
The longest rivers are the Emajõgi with a length of 260 km, the Võhandu with a
length of 162 km and the Pärnu with a length of 145 km.
There are over 1,400 smaller and larger lakes in Estonia.
Peipsi Lake (Peipus Lake)
The largest lake is the Peipsi Lake (Peipus Lake) with an area of 3,555 km²,
of which 1,533 km² are in Estonia and the rest in the Russian Federation. It has
a maximum depth of 15.3 m. Lake Peipsi is the fourth largest lake in Europe.
The Pseikov Lake has an area of 710 km². The border with Russia runs through
Kaali Lake was created by a meteorite impact. It is located in the town of the
same name Kaali on Saarema.
It has a diameter of approx. 110 m and is 16 m deep.
There are 1,521 islands in front of the country, most of them uninhabited. It
is worth mentioning that the British submarine "HMS E18" was recently found near
the island of Hiiumaa, which was sunk here during the First World War in 1916 -
after it had previously torpedoed the German destroyer V 100.
The main islands are:
|Name of the island
||Area in km²
|Muhu (poppy seeds)
|Kassari (Kassargen )
|Väike-Pakri (Eastern Island)
|Suur-Pakri (western island)
Gulf of Finland, Bay of Riga, Baltic Sea
Estonia is located on the southern edge of the Gulf of Finland, on the Riga
Bay, both of which are part of the Baltic Sea - and on the "open" Baltic Sea.