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Finland

Finland: population and cities

Population

Population

According to Countryaah website, Finland has about 5.4 million residents.

Finland: population and cities

Ethnic composition

About 92% of the population are Finns, about 5.6% Swedes and about 0.6% Russians. The Saami ethnic group also lives in Lapland, although they only make up 0.1% of the total Finnish population.

Religious affiliation

82.5% of the population belong to the Evangelical Lutheran Church. 16.4% of Finns are non-denominational. A minority belong to the Finnish Orthodox Church.

National language

The official national languages are Finnish and Swedish as well as the minority language Sami, the language of the Lapps. But only around 1,700 people still speak Sami.

Capital, other cities

The capital of Finland is Helsinki with a population of around 595,550.

Other bigger cities in Finland are:

  • Espoo with around 227,480 residents
  • Vantaa with around 185,400 residents
  • Tampere with around 202,900 residents
  • Turku with around 174,800 residents

Finland: geography, map

National borders

Defined by DigoPaul, Finland has a common border with a total of three countries:

  • Norway with a length of around 736 km
  • Sweden with a length of around 614 km
  • Russia with a length of around 1,340 km

Finland has a coast to the Baltic Sea with a length of around 1,126 km.

Finland: geography, map

Area and land use

Finland covers an area of 338,145 km², around 10% of which is covered by water.

  • Forest

    Around 69% of the country is forested.

  • Meadow and pasture land

    Around 200 km 2 of the land is used as meadow or pasture land.

  • Arable land and fields

    Around 8% of the land is used as arable land or fields, especially for growing barley, oats and sugar beet.

  • Protected wetlands

    There are 173 protected wetlands in Finland with a total area of 453 km2

Tidal range

In Finland the mean tidal range is only around 20 - 40 cm. (You can find detailed explanations of ebb and flow under tides, ebb and flow.)

Comparisons

Incidentally, the world's highest tidal range can be found in the Bay of Fundy in Canada. There it is up to 16 m, with spring tide even over 20 m. The Bay of Fundy is located on the Atlantic between the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, which is called Nova Scotia in German and whose capital is Halifax. On the German North Sea coast it varies between one and three meters. In the western Baltic Sea, on the other hand, the tidal range is only 0.3 m, while it is barely noticeable in the eastern Baltic Sea.

Longitude and latitude

Finland extends over the following geographical latitude (abbreviation Δφ) and geographical longitude (abbreviation Δλ):

Δφ = from 60 to 71 north latitude

Δλ = from 20 to 32 east longitude

You can find detailed information on this subject under Longitude and Latitude.

Legal time

For Finland, the following value applies to Central European Time (CET), i.e. the time without summer time. A minus sign means that it is earlier there and a plus sign that it is later than after CET:

Δt (CET) = + 1 h

Further and detailed explanations of the time can be found under Time zones, time.

Highest point of the sun in Helsinki

Helsinki lies at a northern latitude of around φ = 60 . If the sun is at the tropic, i.e. at δ = 23.5 , summer begins in Helsinki. This is June 21st. Then, for the highest position of the sun at noon, according to Eq. 1 (see position of the sun):

60 = (90 - h) + 23.5

so:

H = 53.5

At 53.5 , the sun has the highest level of the entire year above the horizon (more precisely: above the horizon).

Midnight Sun

In the north of Finland, the sun does not set at night in summer - for example in the following places.

From May 17th to June 27th Utsjoki (69 52`North)
From May 30th to July 14th Sodankylä (67 25` North)
From June 6th to July 7th Rovaniemi (66 30` North)
From June 18th to June 24th Kem (65 45` North)

Low sun in Helsinki

In cities far north, it is also of interest to many people how high the sun appears above the horizon at noon in winter. For this we consider December 21st. At this point in time the sun has a declination of -23.5 , it is then at the southern tropic (Tropic of Capricorn). This case is calculated using the above equation with φ = 60 and δ = - 23.5 for Helsinki:

60 = (90 - h) - 23.5

so:

H = 6.5

On December 21st, the sun in Helsinki only comes up to a maximum of 6.5 above the horizon, and then sets again accordingly early, so that the days are correspondingly short.

mountains

Haltitunturi

The highest mountain in the country is Haltitunturi with a height of 1,324 m.

Other high mountains are:

  • Kahperusvaara with a height of 1,138 m
  • Saana with a height of 1,029 m

Rivers

Kemijoki

The longest river in the country is the Kemijoki with a length of around 483 km.

Other rivers in Finland are:

  • Muoniojoki
  • Torniojoki
  • Ounasjoki
  • Kemijoki
  • Oulujoki
  • Kokemaenjoki

Lakes

Finland comprises around 187,888 lakes.

Saimaa Lake

The largest lake is Saimaa Lake with an area of about 1,377 km².

Other larger lakes are:

  • Päijänne with an area of 1,081 km2
  • Inarijärvi with an area of 1,040 km2
  • Oulujärvi with an area of 877 km2
  • Pielinen with an area of 894 km2

Islands

Finland has a total of 179,584 large and small islands.

Åland

The Åland archipelago consists of over 6,500 islands and skerries and forms an archipelago in the northern Baltic Sea.

The main island has an area of 685 km². Another large island is Kemiö with an area of 524 km².

Gulf of Bothnia, Baltic Sea

Finland borders the Gulf of Bothnia in the west and the Gulf of Finland in the south. Both bays are part of the Baltic Sea.

 

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