Finland: population and cities
Countryaah website, Finland has about 5.4 million residents.
About 92% of the population are Finns, about 5.6% Swedes and about 0.6%
Russians. The Saami ethnic group also lives in Lapland, although they only make
up 0.1% of the total Finnish population.
82.5% of the population belong to the Evangelical Lutheran
Church. 16.4% of Finns are non-denominational. A minority belong to the Finnish
The official national languages are Finnish and Swedish as well as the
minority language Sami, the language of the Lapps. But only around 1,700 people
still speak Sami.
Capital, other cities
The capital of Finland is Helsinki with a population of around 595,550.
Other bigger cities in Finland are:
- Espoo with around 227,480 residents
- Vantaa with around 185,400 residents
- Tampere with around 202,900 residents
- Turku with around 174,800 residents
Finland: geography, map
Defined by DigoPaul, Finland has a common border with a total of three countries:
- Norway with a length of around 736 km
- Sweden with a length of around 614 km
- Russia with a length of around 1,340 km
Finland has a coast to the Baltic Sea with a length of around 1,126 km.
Area and land use
Finland covers an area of 338,145 km², around 10% of which is covered by
Around 69% of the country is forested.
- Meadow and pasture land
Around 200 km 2 of the land is used as meadow or pasture land.
- Arable land and fields
Around 8% of the land is used as arable land or fields, especially for
growing barley, oats and sugar beet.
- Protected wetlands
There are 173 protected wetlands in Finland with a total area of 453 km2
In Finland the mean tidal range is only around 20 - 40 cm. (You can find
detailed explanations of ebb and flow under tides, ebb and flow.)
Incidentally, the world's highest tidal range can be found in the Bay
of Fundy in Canada. There it is up to 16 m, with spring tide even over 20 m. The
Bay of Fundy is located on the Atlantic between the Canadian provinces of New
Brunswick and Nova Scotia, which is called Nova Scotia in German and whose
capital is Halifax. On the German North Sea coast it varies between one and
three meters. In the western Baltic Sea, on the other hand, the tidal range is
only 0.3 m, while it is barely noticeable in the eastern Baltic Sea.
Longitude and latitude
Finland extends over the following geographical latitude (abbreviation Δφ)
and geographical longitude (abbreviation Δλ):
|Δφ = from 60 to 71 ° north latitude
Δλ = from 20 to 32 ° east longitude
You can find detailed information on this subject under Longitude and
For Finland, the following value applies to Central European Time (CET), i.e.
the time without summer time. A minus sign means that it is earlier there and a
plus sign that it is later than after CET:
Further and detailed explanations of the time can be found under Time zones,
Highest point of the sun in Helsinki
Helsinki lies at a northern latitude of around φ = 60 °. If the sun is at the
tropic, i.e. at δ = 23.5 °, summer begins in Helsinki. This is June 21st. Then,
for the highest position of the sun at noon, according to Eq. 1 (see position of
60 ° = (90 ° - h) + 23.5 °
At 53.5 °, the sun has the highest level of the entire year above the horizon
(more precisely: above the horizon).
In the north of Finland, the sun does not set at night in summer - for
example in the following places.
|From May 17th to June 27th
||Utsjoki (69 ° 52`North)
|From May 30th to July 14th
||Sodankylä (67 ° 25` North)
|From June 6th to July 7th
||Rovaniemi (66 ° 30` North)
|From June 18th to June 24th
||Kem (65 ° 45` North)
Low sun in Helsinki
In cities far north, it is also of interest to many people how high the sun
appears above the horizon at noon in winter. For this we consider December
21st. At this point in time the sun has a declination of -23.5 °, it is then at
the southern tropic (Tropic of Capricorn). This case is calculated using the
above equation with φ = 60 ° and δ = - 23.5 ° for Helsinki:
60 ° = (90 ° - h) - 23.5 °
On December 21st, the sun in Helsinki only comes up to a maximum of 6.5 °
above the horizon, and then sets again accordingly early, so that the days are
The highest mountain in the country is Haltitunturi with a height of
Other high mountains are:
- Kahperusvaara with a height of 1,138 m
- Saana with a height of 1,029 m
The longest river in the country is the Kemijoki with a length of
around 483 km.
Other rivers in Finland are:
Finland comprises around 187,888 lakes.
The largest lake is Saimaa Lake with an area of about 1,377 km².
Other larger lakes are:
- Päijänne with an area of 1,081 km2
- Inarijärvi with an area of 1,040 km2
- Oulujärvi with an area of 877 km2
- Pielinen with an area of 894 km2
Finland has a total of 179,584 large and small islands.
The Åland archipelago consists of over 6,500 islands and skerries and
forms an archipelago in the northern Baltic Sea.
The main island has an area of 685 km². Another large island is Kemiö with an
area of 524 km².
Gulf of Bothnia, Baltic Sea
Finland borders the Gulf of Bothnia in the west and the Gulf of Finland in
the south. Both bays are part of the Baltic Sea.