Indonesia: population and cities
Countryaah website, Indonesia has around 240 million residents.
Javanese 45%, Sundanese 14%, Madurese 7.5%, Malaysians 7.5%, others 26%
Muslim 88%, Protestants 5%, Catholics 3%, Hindus 2%,
Buddhists 1%, other 1%
The national language is " Bahasa Indonesia ". This is a Malay language
written using Latin letters. English as a commercial and business language,
Dutch and local dialects such as Javanese are also spoken.
Capital and other cities
The capital of Indonesia is Jakarta on the island of Java with a population
of around 10 million - in the metropolitan area even around 28 million.
Other larger cities are:
Surabaja with around 2.5 million residents, Bandung with around 2 million
residents, Tangerang with approx. 1 million residents and Semarang with
approx. 1.1 million residents.
Medan with around 1.8 million residents and Palembang with around 1.2 million
Ujungpandang with approx. 1 million residents.
Denpassar with around 450,000 residents.
Indonesia: geography, map, provinces
Defined by DigoPaul, Indonesia covers a total land area of 1,919,440 km² - this also includes
territorial waters with an area of around 3.3 million km². Politically and
administratively, the country is currently divided into 31 provinces, two
special regions and the capital district Jakarta. It is to be expected that
there will be some further changes in the administrative structure of the
country in the next few years. It is worth noting that there are around 120
active volcanoes in the state.
Some interesting provinces
The province of Papua covers an area of 421,981 km² - with around 2.7 million
residents and is located in the west of the island of New Guinea, in the east
is the state of Papua New Guinea. The provincial capital is Jayapura with around
257,000 residents. The highest mountain in the province and the whole country
is the 4,884 m high Puncak Jaya (Carstensz Pyramid).
The province of the Moluccas (Maluku) - the former Spice Islands - extends over
the southern part of the Moluccas archipelago. The main islands are Ambon,
Seram, Buru, the Banda Islands, the Barat Daya Islands, the Kei Islands, the Aru
Islands and the Tanimbar Islands. The province covers an area of 42,853. km² -
with around 1.5 million residents. The provincial capital is Ambon with around
277,000 residents. The highest mountain in the province is the 3,027 m high
The province of Northern Moluccas (Maluku Utara) was founded in 1999 and
comprises the northern part of the Moluccas archipelago. The main islands of the
province are the Bacan Islands, Halmahera, Morotai, the Obi Islands, the Sula
Islands, as well as Ternate and Tidore. The province covers an area of 31,652
km² - with around 1.1 million residents. The provincial capital is Soffi with
around 250,000 residents.
The province North West Sumatra - Sumetera Utara - is one of the 10 provinces of
Sumatra and covers an area of 70,787 square kilometers - around 13 million
residents. The province is located in the north of the island of Sumatra. The
Barisan Mountains run through the province. The provincial capital is Medan with
around 2.1 million residents. The highest mountain in the province is the
3,805 m high Gunung Kerinci. Worth mentioning is the approx. 1,175 km² local
Lake Toba, which was formed as a result of the eruption of the volcano of the
same name around 74,000 years ago.
Around 51 million people live in the ten provinces of Sumatra - including the
associated islands - with a total area of 473,481 km².
The province of Sulawesi Tengah (central Sulawesi) comprises the southern part
of the northern peninsula and the eastern peninsula. The province covers an area
of 69,726 km² - with around 2.7 million residents.
The provincial capital is Palu with around 380,000 million residents. The
highest mountain on the island is the 3,440 m high Gunung Rantemario, which is
located in the Sulawesi Selatan province
- earthquake, tsunami
At the end of August 2018, Sulawesi was hit by an earthquake with a magnitude of
7.3 on the Richter scale. As a result of the quake, a tsunami occurred, which
caused severe devastation, especially in the city of Palu and the surrounding
area, and probably killed over 2,000 people.
The province of Sulawesi Selatan (South Sulawesi) comprises the southern
peninsula of Sulawesi between the Makassar Strait and the Gulf of Bone. The
province covers an area of 55,983 km² with around 8 million residents. The
provincial capital is Makassar with around 1.4 million residents. The highest
mountain in the province and the whole island is the 3,440 m high Gunung
The province of Kalimatan (Borneo) covers an area of 529,460 km² - with around
10.7 million residents. The provincial capital is Banjarmasin with around
residents. The highest mountain is the 2,278 m high Bukit Raya.
The province of Bali covers an area of 5,632 km² - with around 4.3 million
In addition to the island of Bali, 85 islands, some of them unnamed, belong to
the province, including Nusa Penida, NusaLembongan and Nusa Ceningan. The
provincial capital is Denpassar with around 630,000 residents. Most of the
mountains are of volcanic origin and take up about three quarters of the
The highest mountain is the 3,142 m high Gunung Agung. Without a doubt, Bali is
Indonesia's most popular island for vacationers from the US, Australia and
Europe. The vacation ended fatally on October 12, 2002 for 202 people who had
been killed in bomb attacks on two discos in Kuta. On October 1, 2005, three
explosive devices exploded, killing 26 people and injuring 126 people.
The province of Java Tengah (Central Java) is one of the six provinces of Java
and covers an area of 32,548 km² with around 32.5 million residents. The
city of Jakarta and its residents are directly subordinate to the central
government. The capital of the province is Semarang with around 1.6 million
residents. The highest mountain in the province is the 3,371 m high
stratovolcano Gunung Sumbing and the highest mountain on the island of Java is
the 3,676 m high stratovolcano Gunung Semeru.
Lesser Sunda Islands
The province of the Lesser Sunda Islands (Nusa Tenggara) cover an area of 68,053
km², which is distributed over 148 islands. Around 7.5 million people live
here. The capital is Mataram with around residents. The highest mountain is
the 3,726 m high Gunung Rinjani.
Islands that make up the country
The country consists of 17,000 islands. Indonesia itself has an allusion to
the numerous islands in its name. The Latin word Indus stands for India and the
second part comes from the Greek word Nesos = island.
Indonesia is made up of islands that are among the largest in the world:
- New Guinea with an area of 771,900 km² is
the second largest island in the world. Of this, 421,981 km² belong to the
Indonesian province of Papua, the remaining area belongs to the state of
Papua New Guinea.
- Borneo, with a total area of 751,936 km², is the
third largest island in the world. Indonesia shares the island with Malaysia
and the small state of Brunei.
- Kalimantan (Borneo) is the third largest island in the
world with an area of 746.00 km², of which 529.460 km² belong
to Indonesia, the remaining area belongs to Brunei and Malaysia.
- Sumatra with an area of 443,550 km² is the
sixth largest island in the world.
- Java with an area of 132,007 km²
- Sulawesi with an area of 189,035 km²
- Bali with an area of 5,561 km²
National borders, length of coast
With a total of three states Indonesia has a common border:
East Timor km with a length of around 228,
Malaysia with a length of around 1,782 kilometers and
to Papua New Guinea km with a length of around 820th
The islands of Indonesia encompass a sea coast with a length of around 60,000
Tidal range in Jakarta
At Jakarta the mean tidal range is around 1.5 m.
For detailed explanations of ebb and flow, see Tides, Ebb and Flow.
The world's highest tidal range can be found in the Bay of Fundy in Canada,
where it is up to 16 meters, and at spring tide even over 20 meters. The Bay of
Fundy is located on the Atlantic between the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick
and Nova Scotia, which is called Nova Scotia in German and whose capital is
On the German North Sea coast it varies between one and three meters. In the
western Baltic Sea, on the other hand, the tidal range is only 0.3 meters, while
it is barely noticeable in the eastern Baltic Sea.
Longitude and latitude
Indonesia extends over the following latitude (abbreviation Δφ) and
geographical longitude (abbreviation Δλ):
|Δφ = from around 06 ° north latitude to 11 ° south latitude
Δλ = from around 095 ° to 140 ° east longitude
You can find detailed information on this subject under Longitude and
For Indonesia, the following value applies to Central European Time (CET),
i.e. the time (without summer time) in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. A
minus sign means that it is earlier there, a plus sign that it is later than
|West Indonesian Time + 6 h: Java, Sumatra, West and Central
Central Indonesian Time + 7 h: Bali, Nusa, Tenggera, South-East
East Indonesian Time + 8 h: Papua, Moluccas
Further and detailed explanations of the time can be found under Time zones,
The highest point of the sun in Jakarta
Jakarta is located at a southern latitude of around φ = 06 ° and thus in the
middle of the tropics.
If the declination of the sun has a value of 06 ° south and the sun's image
point is exactly above the city, the sun is perpendicular to the city. This
happens exactly twice a year, roughly 23 days before March 21st and 23 days
after September 21st.
If the image point of the sun and thus its declination is north of the latitude
of Jakarta, the sun is not in the south at noon, as in our latitudes, but in the
north. In this case, the sun moves from east to north to west, where, like us,
The highest mountain in the country is the Puncak Jaya in the central
mountains of Papua with a height of 5,030 m.
It should be noted that there are around 120 active volcanoes in the country, 65
of which are considered dangerous.
Other high mountains or volcanoes are:
- Gunung Binaya with a height of 3,027 m. It is located
on the 17,100 km² Moluccan island of Seram (Ceram)
- Gunung Kerinci (Kerinchi) with a height of 3,805 m. It
is located on the 443,550 km² island of Sumatra.
- Gunung Rantemario with an altitude of 3,440 m. It is
located on the 189,035 km² island of Sulawesi.
- Gunung Agung with an altitude of 3,142 m, it is located
on the 5,561 km² island of Bali. For the Balinese, the gods have their seat
- Gunung Semeru with a height of 3,676 m. It is located
on the km² island of Java and is the highest mountain on the Indonesian
island. The diameter of its crater is around 500 m.
It is located in the Bromo-Tengger-Semeru National Park and is one of the
most active and dangerous volcanoes in the world.
- Gunung Rinjani with a height of 3,726 m. It is located
on the 4,725 km² island of Lombok
- Gunung Merapiwith a height of approx. 2,914. The Merapi
is located on the island of Java and is not only one of the most active, but
also one of the most dangerous volcanoes in the world. 68 eruptions have
been documented since 1548. The very dense settlement up to high slopes
makes the mountain particularly dangerous. Around 3.2 million people live in
the immediate vicinity of the volcano and around 70,000 in the forbidden
zone on its slopes - there are villages at around 2,000 m altitude. The
Merapi is one of the stratovolcanoes, these volcanoes, which include St.
Helens, Vesuvius and Etna, have a high potential for explosion. The mountain
had last exploded in 1930, killing 1,370 people. The last momentous outbreak
occurred in 1994, with 66 dead and hundreds injured.
There are numerous myths about the mountain. It is believed that there is an
invisible kingdom on the mountain, whose ruler grants protection to the
people who live on or around the mountain. The huge temple complex
"Borobudur", which is one of the main attractions for tourists on Java, is
located near the volcano.
- Bukit Raya with a height of 2,278 m. It is located on
the total of 751,936 km² island of Borneo, the Indonesian part of which is
known as Kalimantan.
The longest river in the country is the Kapuas with a length of 1,150
km. The river is on Kalimantan (Borneo).
Other rivers in the country are:
- Mamberamo and Digul in Papua
- Barito and Mahakam on Kalimantan
- Musi, Batangari, Indragiri and Kapar in Sumatra
- Bengawan Solo, Brantas and Citarum on Java.
Lakes on the islands
The country includes numerous smaller and larger lakes. The largest lake is the
Danube Toba (Lake Toba), with an area of around 1,700 km².
The volcanic crater lake is also the largest lake in Southeast Asia. It is
located in the north of Sumatra at an altitude of 900 m. In the middle of the
lake is the approximately 530 km² island of Samosir.
Other larger lakes are:
- Danube Batur in Bali
- Danube Poso on Sulawesi.
Andaman Sea, Arafura Sea, Banda Sea
The Andaman Sea - also Andaman Sea - is a marginal sea of the Indian
Ocean. The Andaman Sea extends roughly from the Irrawaddy river delta in Myanmar
in the north over a length of around 1,200 km to the start of the Strait of
Malacca. In the west it is bounded by the Cocos Islands, the Andamans and the
Nicobar Islands. It covers an area of around km² with a maximum depth of
around 4,180 m. The water temperature on the surface of the sea fluctuates
between 27.5 °C and 30 °C.
The Andaman Sea became famous not least because of the tsunami of December 26,
2004, which resulted in numerous deaths in Thailand, Malaysia, the offshore
western islands (Andamans and Nicobar Islands) and Sumatra. In all affected
countries - also outside the Andaman Sea - together probably over 230,000.
The Arafurasee lies between the Australian continent in the south and
the island of New Guinea in the north. The southeastern part of the island
belongs to the independent state of Papua New Guinea, while the northwestern
part belongs to Indonesia. The Arufa Sea is a tributary of the Pacific Ocean -
but here and there it is also regarded as part of the Indian Ocean. The Arufa
Sea covers an area of around 650,000 km², with an average depth of only around
The Banda Sea is located in the middle of the Indonesian islands. The sea has a
length of about 1,200 km in west-east direction and a width of about 600 km in
The deepest part of the lake is the Webertief in the east of the lake with a
depth of 7,440 m. Around the Banda Sea are the Great Sunda Islands in the west,
the Lesser Sunda Islands in the south and the Moluccas in the north and east. In
the north the Banda Sea merges into the Molucca Sea, in the east into the
Arafura Sea, in the south into the Timor Sea and the Sawu Sea, in the southwest
into the Flores Sea and in the west into the Java Sea.
The islands of Buru, Flores, Seram, Sulawesi, Timor and Yamdena are located on
the Banda Sea. The Banda Islands lie within the Banda Sea.
Celebesee, Floresee, Java Sea
The Java Sea covers an area of around 310,000 km². The sea is bounded
or framed by Borneo in the north, Java in the south, Sumatra in the west and
Sulawesi in the east.
In the southwest, the Sunda Strait connects the Java Sea with the Indian Ocean,
while in the northwest it connects the Karimata Strait with the South China
Connected to the sea. In the northeast, the Makassar Strait is the connection to
the Celebes Sea. In the south - north of the island of Bali - is the Bali Sea
and in the far east - north of Flores - is the Floresee. South China Sea
Indonesia borders the South China Sea to the north and
northwest of Borneo and to the east of Sumatra
The South China Sea is part of the China Sea and one of the marginal seas of the
Pacific Ocean. The sea includes the Gulf of Thailand and the Gulf of Tonkin. It
covers an area of around 2,975,000 km "- with a maximum Tife of 5,025 m.
The following states are located on the South China Sea in addition to
Indonesia: Brunei, Hong Kong (People's Republic of China), Cambodia, Malaysia,
the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam.
Sea The Celebes Sea is bounded in the west by Borneo and in the east by
In the southwest the Celebessee is connected by the Makassar Strait with the
The Floresee lies in the east of the Java Sea and north of the island Flores
Straits of Malacca, Karimata Straits
Strait of Malacca
The Strait of Malacca is one of the busiest waterways in the world and is
notorious for its pirate raids. It is located at a length of around 800 km -
with a width of around 55 km near the city of Malaka (Malacca) - between the
Indonesian island of Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula. The strait connects the
Andaman Sea with the South China Sea and the Java Sea, and ships to and from
Malacca and Singapore use it.
The Karimata Strait is up to 500 km
wide in some places and connects the Java Sea with the South China Sea. It is
located between the islands of Sumatra and Borneo. It is interesting that the
equator runs in the northern part of the street.
South China Sea, Pacific
South China Sea
The South China Sea is part of the China Sea and one of the marginal seas of the
Pacific Ocean. The sea includes the Gulf of Thailand and the Gulf of Tonkin. It
covers an area of around 2,975,000 km "- with a maximum depth of 5,025 m.
In addition to Indonesia, there are also the following countries on the South
China Sea: Brunei, Hong Kong (People's Republic of China), Cambodia, Malaysia,
the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam:
A detailed description of the South China Sea can be found here >>>
Indonesia borders in the southwest of Sumatra, and in the south of Java and Bali
on the Pacific Ocean - the largest and deepest ocean in the world. The Pacific
Ocean is also known as the Pacific, Pacific, or Great Ocean. It stretches
between the Arctic, North, Central and South America as well as the Antarctic,
Australia, Oceania and Asia. It has a gigantic area of 166.24 million km² (not
including secondary seas) and therefore covers around 35% of the entire surface
of the earth. The ocean, which is larger than all the continents combined, goes
at its deepest point in the Mariana Trench down to 11,034 meters below sea