Nepal: population and cities
Countryaah website, Nepal has around 29.5 million residents.
About three quarters of the residents of Nepal are of Indo-Aryan and
Indo-Nepalese origin. The rest of the population is made up of Tibetan-Nepalese
groups (such as the Tamang, Gurung, Newar, Thakali, Magar, Sunwar, Rai, Limbu
and Tharu) as well as a small minority of Tibetan groups (Sherpa, Tibetan
affiliation Hinduism is anchored in the Nepalese constitution as the
state religion, which has earned the country the nickname "the only Hindu
kingdom in the world". Hinduism therefore enjoys special protection. According
to a controversially discussed law, " attempts to convert" Hindus to Islam, Christianity or
other religions are punished with imprisonment (proselytizing). About 80% of the
population are Hindus, 15% Buddhists, 3% Muslims and 2% Christians and others.
Since the unification of Nepal in the 18th century, Nepali has been the
official language, but there are around 50 minority languages and dialects.
Nepali comes from the ancient Indian Sanskrit, the so-called "language of the
gods". As a descendant of Sanskrit, it belongs to the Indo-Germanic language
family, to which, with a few exceptions (such as Turkish, Finnish, Hungarian),
all European languages also belong. So Nepali is basically related to German,
which is of little use when learning the language! Nepali is written in the
Devanagiri alphabet. It consists of 36 consonants, 12 vowels and 2 nasal
signs. There are also around 30-40 combined consonants called ligatures.
Other languages belong to the Tibeto-Burmese language family and are also
divided into various local dialects, so that many Nepalese would find it
difficult to communicate with one another if it weren't for the national
Capital and other cities
The capital of Nepal is Kathmandu with a population of around 1.2 million.
In the Kathmandu Valley as the largest population center there are still the
cities of Bhaktapur (about 180,000 residents) and the
small cities of Madyapur-Timi and Kirtipur. The
Kathmandu valley is largely sprawled and the complete, almost always unplanned
use as settlement area is foreseeable. The Kathmandu area today has a population
of around 1.5 million.
The second largest population center in the mountains is the Pokhara
Valley. The cities of Pokhara and Lekhnath have
exceeded the 200,000 population limit.
Nepal: geography, map
Defined by DigoPaul, the former kingdom and present-day Republic of Nepal is located in Asia and
extends from the 26th to the 30th parallel north and from the 80th to 88th
parallel east. It covers an area of 147,181 km², of which approximately
136,800 km² are land. Inland waters are found on the remaining 4,000 km². Nepal
lies between the two most populous countries on earth: the Tibetan region of
China in the north and India in the south, east and west.
Area and land use
Nepal covers a total area of 147,181 km². About 136,800 km² of this is land
area, the remaining 4,000 km² are inland waters. The state of Nepal extends
along the southern canopy of the Himalayas over a length of about 850 km and a
width of about 150 to 250 km. The
landscape is divided into three regions, which run parallel to each other from
northwest to southeast.
In the south, on the edge of the Ganges plain, the Terai plain extends, which is
only up to about 100 m high.
To the north of it rise the Himalayan foothills: in the west the foothills of
the Siwalik Mountains reaching from India and to the east the Mahabharat and
Churia-Gati Mountains with an average height of 2,500 m.
This region is traversed by large longitudinal valleys over 500 to 1,000 m,
including the Kathmandu valley. To the north of the foothills, the high Himalaya
rises with an average height of 4,500 m. Seven of the ten highest mountains in
the world - all over 8,000 m high - are in Nepal, among them Mount Everest
(Qomolangma Feng), with 8,850 m the highest peak in the world.
Around 30% of the country is forested. In the Terai lowlands there are
extensive tropical hardwood and bamboo forests and swamps that provide a
habitat for tigers, leopards, monkeys, elephants and other animals. Mixed
forests with deciduous and evergreen trees such as oak, maple, magnolias,
pines and rhododendrons grow on lower slopes. In the higher elevations, the
mixed forest gives way to fir forests and undergrowth. Beyond the tree line
at 3,600 m, there is only sparse alpine vegetation. There, in the high
Himalayas, yak herds are led to the high alpine pastures by their shepherds
during the short summer months.
On parts of the border with Tibet stretches over 400 kilometers - from the
Ganesh Himal to the north-west of the country - the northern Himalayan dry
zone, whose rugged wasteland is reminiscent of the Tibetan plateau. Because
of its hostile conditions, the region is sparsely populated, arable farming
is only practiced in the river plains.
- Arable land and fields
Around 38% of the land is used as arable land or fields. In the Terai
lowlands, the land is cultivated especially for the commercial cultivation
of rice, wheat, sugar cane, jute and tobacco. In the higher mountain
regions, agriculture has created an old cultural landscape. People grow
rice, maize, wheat, potatoes and millet in the valleys and on the densely
terraced mountain slopes.
According to the country's reputation, Nepal is an extremely mountainous
country. Around 64% of the area is over 1,000 meters high, 28% of which are
over 3,000 meters and 10% even over 5,000 m. These latter regions are
covered by permanent snow. The Shiwaliks or Churia Mountains form the
northern end of the Terai plain directly adjacent to India. This strip,
which extends through the whole country, cannot be used for agriculture due
to the nature of the soil and is accordingly sparsely
populated. Uncontrolled deforestation has also led to severe soil erosion,
and the masses of water flowing into the Terai during the monsoons have
caused many a flood disaster. North of the Shiwaliks, the Mahabharat chain
stretches with peaks between 2,000 and 3,000 meters. This ridge is an old
Nepalese settlement area. Since the river valleys were narrow and unsuitable
for settlement, the population settled on the valley slopes and created
- Mountains and valleys around Kathmandu
To the north of the Mahabharat chain is the mountain range that surrounds
the valleys of Kathmandu and Pokhara. Lush rainfall and the moderate climate
make this region the main settlement area. The region is now suffering from
overpopulation, soil erosion and soil degradation. The arable land is
cultivated on terraces that have been wrestled from the mountains in
laborious work. Wet rice is grown up to an altitude of 2,000 m, maize up to
2,500 m and wheat even up to an altitude of 2,800 m.
Himalayan massif. The Himalayan massif rises from
the mountains, the peaks of which are covered with eternal snow. Translated
from Sanskrit, Himalaya means "place of snow". Within the mountain range is
the highest mountain in the world, Mount Everest. However, this region
hardly plays a role as a settlement area. The settlement boundary is around
2,500 m, some summer settlements are built up to an altitude of 4,400 m.
The 400 km long north Himalayan dry zone stretches from the Ganesh Himal to
the north-west of the country, with its rugged desert reminiscent of the
Tibetan plateaus. The region is only sparsely populated because of its
Nepal has a common border with the following two countries.
China (Tibet) with a length of 1,236 km
India with a length of 1,690 km.
Longitude and latitude
Nepal extends over the following geographical latitude (abbreviation Δφ) and
geographical longitude (abbreviation Δλ):
|Δφ = from around 26 ° to 30 ° north latitude
Δλ = from around 080 ° to 088 ° east longitude
You can find detailed information on this subject under Longitude and
For Nepal, the following value applies to Central European Time (CET), i.e.
the time without summer time. A minus sign means that it is earlier there, a
plus sign that it is later than CET:
Further and detailed explanations of the time can be found under Time
The highest point of the sun in Kathmandu
Kathmandu lies at a northern latitude of around φ = 28 °.
If the sun, or its image point, is at the northern tropic, i.e. at δ = 23.5
°, summer begins in Kathmandu, this is June 21. Then, for the highest position
of the sun at noon, according to Eq. 1 (see position of the sun):
28 ° = (90 ° - h) + 23.5 °
At 85.5 °, the sun in Kathmandu has the highest level of the entire year
above the horizon (more precisely: above the horizon).
The highest mountain in the country is Mount Everest with a height
of 8,846 m. It is located in the north of the country on the border with
China. The mountain was climbed on May 29, 1953 by Sir Edmund Hillary from New
Zealand and the local Sherpa Tensing. It is interesting that China has so far
given the height of the mountain at 8,844.3 m. Only in April 2010 did China
accept the "Nepalese" altitude specification of 8,848 m.
The other eight-thousanders located wholly or partly in Nepal are:
||May 25, 1955
||George Band and Joe Brown (GB)
||May 18, 1956
||Fritz Luchsinger and Ernst Reiss (Switzerland)
||May 15-17, 1955
||J.Couzy, L.Terray, J.Franco, G.Magnone, J.Bouvier, S.Coupé,
P.Leroux, A.Vialatte and G.Norbu (France)
||October 19, 1954
||Herbert Tichy, Sepp Jöchler (Austria) and Sirdar Pasang Dawa Lama
||May 13, 1960
||Kurt Diemberger, Peter Diener, Ernst Forrer, Albin Schelbert
(Austria) and the Sherpas Nawang Dorje and Nyima Dorje (Nepal)
|| 8,163 m
||May 9, 1956
||Toshio Imanishi, Kiishiro Kato, Minoru Higeta and Sherpa Gyalazen
||June 3, 1950
||Maurice Herzog and Louis Lachenal (France)
Other high mountains:
- Annapurna IIwith an altitude of 7,937 m
- Annapurna IIIwith an altitude of 7,582 m
- Gangchempowith an altitude of 6,400 m
The longest river in the country is the Kaligandaki from the
Gandaki River System.
Other rivers in the country are:
The Koshi and the Karnali
The country includes numerous smaller and larger lakes.
The largest lake in the country is Rara Lake, which is located in the west of
the country and covers an area of around 9.8 km².
Phewa in the Pokhara District covers an area of around 5 km², making it the
second largest lake in the country
The Phoksundo in the Dolpa district covers an area of around 4.95 km²
The Rupatal in the Pokhara district covers an area of around 1.35 km²