Netherlands: population and cities
Countryaah website, the Netherlands has a total of around 16.7 million residents.
Nationalities besides the Dutch:
- Indonesians: 2.4%
- Germans: 2.4%
- Turks: 2.2%
- Suriname: 2.0%
- Moroccans: 1.9%
- Catholics: 28%
- Protestants: 19%
- Muslims: 6%
- Jews: 40,000
- Other confessions: 4%
- without commitment: 44%
The national language is
of course Dutch. Frisian is spoken in the province of Friesland (Fryslân).
Aruba, Curacoa and St. Marteen
Since October 9, 2010, the Caribbean islands of Aruba, Curacoa and St.
Marteen have been an independent part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The
newly arrived 21,000 residents have the right to vote in the parliament of the
Netherlands, but their currency is the US dollar. The Netherlands Antilles no
Capital, other cities
The capital of the Netherlands is Amsterdam with a population of around
864,000, but the seat of government and parliament is The Hague. Other cities
- Rotterdam with around 599,000 residents
- The Hague ('s-Gravenhage) with around 458,300
- Utrecht with around 260,700 residents
- Eindhoven with around 205,000 residents
- Tilburg with around 197,400 residents
- Groningen with around 175,500 residents
- Breda with around 163,300 residents
- Almere with around 159,400 residents
- Nijmegen with around 155,000 residents
- Apeldoorn with around 154,700 residents
- Enschede with around 151,300 residents
- Haarlem with around 147,800 residents
- Arnhem with around 140,800 residents
- Zaanstad with around 137,600 residents
- 's-Hertogenbosch with around 131,800 residents
- Amersfoort with around 129,400 residents
- Maastricht with around 121,800 residents
- Dordrecht with around 120,300 residents
- Haarlemmermeer with around 118,600 residents
- Leiden with around 117,000 residents
- Zoetermeer with around 110,200 residents
- Zwolle with around 109,000 residents
- Emmen with around 108,400 residents
- Ede with around 103,700 residents
- Delft with around 97,100 residents
National borders, length of coast
Defined by DigoPaul, the European part of the Netherlands has a common border with the following
- Germany with a length of around 577 km,
- Belgium with a length of around 450 km.
The island of Saint Martin (Sint Marteen), which has been part of the
Netherlands since October 9, 2010, borders on the part of the island that
belongs to France for around 10 km.
The European part of the Netherlands includes a coastline to the North Sea with
a length of around 450 km.
Area, land use and Randstad
The European part of the Netherlands covers a total area of 41,528 km2.
Around 8% of the country is forested.
Around 54% of the country is used for agriculture.
- Land area
Around 33,800 km2 land area, of which 26% are below sea level.
- Water surface
Around 7,700 km 2 of the country are water surfaces.
- National parks
Around 2.8% of the total area are protected natural areas.
Since October 9, 2010 - after around five years of negotiations - the
political situation in the Netherlands has been reorganized. Since then, the
Caribbean islands of Aruba, Curaçao and St. Maarten have been autonomous
countries within the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The islands of Bonaire, Saba
and St. Eustatius have the status of special parishes in the Netherlands and do
not belong to any province. Aruba had had a comparable status since 1986:
The Randstad is a very densely populated urban area that extends over parts of
the provinces of North Holland, South Holland, Flevoland and Utrecht - and
covers around 20% of the area of the Netherlands. The area includes the cities
and regions of Almere, Amsterdam, Delft, The Hague, Dordrecht, Gouda, Haarlem,
Hilversum, Leiden, Rotterdam and Utrecht.
Around 40% of the entire population of the Netherlands live here.
Longitude and latitude
The European part of the Netherlands extends over the following geographical
latitude (abbreviation Δφ) and geographical longitude (abbreviation Δλ):
|Δφ = from 50 ° 45 'to 53 ° 33' north latitude
Δλ = from 003 ° 21 'to 007 ° 13' east longitude
You can find detailed information on this subject under Longitude and
Central European Time (CET) applies in the European part of the Netherlands.
Further and detailed explanations of the time can be found under Time zones,
The highest point of the sun in Amsterdam
Amsterdam lies at a north latitude of around φ = 52.5 °.
If the sun is at the tropic, i.e. at δ = 23.5 °, summer will start in Amsterdam
on June 21. Then, for the highest position of the sun at noon, according to
Eq. 1 (see position of the sun):
52.5 ° = (90 ° - h) + 23.5 °
At 61 °, the sun in Amsterdam has the highest level of the entire year above
the horizon (more precisely: above the horizon).
Mountains or elevations
Vaalserberg, Mount Scenery
The highest mountain or the highest elevation in the European part of
the country is the Vaalserberg in the province of Limburg with a height of 323
m. But after the Caribbean islands of Aruba, Curacoa and St. Marteen became
independent parts of the Niederlange on October 9, 2010, the highest mountain in
the entire country is the 877 m high Mount Scenery on the island of Saba. With
an area of 13 km², Saba is the smallest inhabited island in the former
Other mountains or elevations in the European part of the Netherlands:
- Vrouenheide with a height of 214 m
- Schweuiber with a height of 206 m.
And on the Caribbean islands:
- The Quill on Saint Eustatius with a height of 601 m
- Pic Paradis on Saint Martin with an altitude of 411 m
- Jamanota in Aruba with a height of 188 m
Rivers, Rhine and Meuse
The longest river in the country is the Rhine with a length of around
1,230 km from its source in Switzerland to its mouth in the Netherlands.
According to some authors, the Rhine rises in Tomasse in the Swiss canton of
Graubünden. But there are some source rivers further away from the mouth, which
other authors consider to be sources of the Rhine, such as the source of the
"Rein da Medel" in the canton of Ticino in the catchment area of the
Hinterrhein. Depending on the source, the Rhine has a length of 1,230 km (from
Tomasee) or around 1,300 km. The Tomasee lies at an altitude of 2,345 m in the
catchment area of the Vorderrhein. The Vorderrhein rises in the approx. 3,000
m high area of the Gotthard tunnel and flows through the famous Flims Gorge,
among other things. The Hinterrhein lies further east and is coming
At Tamins, a municipality 10 km west of Chur in the canton of Graubünden, the
Vorderrhein and Hinterrhein flow together to form the "Alpine Rhine". This
Alpine Rhine is around 100 km long and - as mentioned - forms the border between
Liechtenstein and Switzerland and, further north, part of the border between
Switzerland and Austria.
West of Bregenz, the Alpine Rhine flows into the Upper Lake - part of Lake
Constance - then through the Rhine Lake and at the end of the Lower Lake it
leaves Lake Constance at Stein am Rhein. At Schaffhausen in Switzerland, it
plunges down as a waterfall over a height difference of m. The Rhine Falls of
Schaffhausen are impassable for all types of ships and fish (except eels). With
a height of 23 m and a width of 150 m, it is the largest waterfall in Europe
after Dettifoss on Iceland.
At Hoek van Holland the "Rhine" then flows into the North Sea.
The Rhine from the source to the mouth is divided into the following sections:
Area of source rivers
Is described in the text above.
The Alpine Rhine stretches from the confluence of the front and rear
Rhine to Lake Constance (Oberer See) near Bregenz.
Obersee, Seerhein and Untersee (together Lake
From the Obersee the Rhine flows through the Seerhein and the Untere
See, which ends at Stein am Rhein.
The Upper Rhine begins in Stein am Rhein, at the end of Lake Constance,
and extends to Basel
The Upper Rhine begins in Basel and extends to Binger Loch. The Middle
Upper Rhine Valley is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The Middle Rhine begins at Binger Loch and extends to Bonn.
At Sankt Goarshausen in Rhineland-Palatinate, it passes the Loreley, an
approximately 125 m high slate rock on the right bank of the Rhine, which was
immortalized by Heinrich Heine's poem.
The Lower Rhine begins in Bonn and extends to the Rhine-Maas delta
The Rhine-Maas delta consists of a branched river delta that is formed
before the confluence of the Rhine and Maas into the North Sea. The Meuse rises
in France, flows through Belgium and flows into the North Sea after approx. 925
km in this delta.
Cities on the Rhine
Tributaries of the Rhine (alphabetically), the river lengths are
rounded up or down:
|Name of the river
||Estuary in section of the Rhine
||Length of the river in km
||Obersee (Lake Constance)
||Obersee (Lake Constance)
Other rivers are the Rhine arms Waal, Leek and IJssel, which form the delta of
the Rhine, and the Maas (Meuse) with a total length of around 925 km.
The IJsselmeer - in the German IJsselmeer - is a diked former part of the North
Sea. In the meantime, the water of this approx. 1,100 km² inland sea consists
practically of fresh water. The inland sea is separated from the Norsee in the
north by a large 90 m wide and 29 km long dike. Motorway 7 leads across the
dike. The dike has two huge sluices and a pumping station.
The IJsselmeer is a large part of the former Zuidersee. The dike was built in
1932. Today's water depth is between around 2 m and 5 m, with the exception of a
few deeper places. A second dike, which was completed in 1976, divides the
IJsselmeer into two parts in the southern part, with the southern part having
its own name "Markermeer". The two seas are connected by two locks - in the
northwest near Enkhuizen and in the southeast near Lelystad. The southeastern
parts of today's Markermeer and the IJsselmeer have been drained and form the
province of Flevoland, which is surrounded by water. To the north is the newly
created area "Noordoostpolder". Both areas are characterized by the 1, 2 km wide
Ketelmeer separated - at this point the two regions are connected by a bridge
(Ketelbrücke = Ketelbrug), over which the Autobahn 6 leads (Boereland
route). The area of the IJsselmeer is a popular area for water sports
This inland sea gets its water mainly from the IJssel and the Vechte.
Other larger lakes are:
- Grevelingen, the lake is the largest salt water lake
in Europe with an area of around 110 km2
- Veerse Meer
The West Frisian Islands are offshore. The most important are:
- Terscheling with an area of 674 km2
- Texel with an area of 586 km2
- Vlieland with an area of 321 km2
- Ameland with an area of 273 km2
- Schiermonnikoog with an area of 191 km2
You can find some information about the newly added Caribbean islands since
October 9, 2010 at the beginning of the article.
Deepest place in the country
Nieuwerkerk a/d Ijssel (South Holland) with 6.7 m below sea level.
The Netherlands borders the North Sea for around 450 km.