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Peru

Peru: population and cities

Population

Population

According to Countryaah website, around 33 million people live in Peru.

Peru: population and cities

Ethnic composition

47% Indians, 37% Mestizos, 13% Europeans, minorities: Africans, Japanese, Chinese and mulattos.

Religious

affiliation Roman Catholic: 95%, Protestant Church: 3%. Natural religions are widespread among the Indians. Within the Catholic Church in Peru, a special form of religious interpretation developed:

The "Theology of Liberation"

This term is based on the book of the same name by the Catholic theologian Gustavo Gutièrrez. Accordingly, being a Christian means taking the side of the poor and living in solidarity with them. For Gutièrrez, this is not only a problem for Christians in the Third World, but the central question for Christianity in general. He is thus in opposition to the local Church and above all the papal Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith in Rome.

National language The official languages are Spanish and Quecha (Quechua). Aymará is also widespread.

Capital, other cities

The capital of Peru is Lima with around 9.3 million residents. Other cities are:

  • Trujillo with around 610,000 residents
  • Callao with around 750,000 residents
  • Arequipa with around 720,000 residents
  • Chiclayo with around 480,000 residents
  • Iquitos with around 400,000 residents

Peru: geography

Defined by DigoPaul, Peru is located on the west coast of South America between the equator and 18 ° 21 'south latitude. It borders the Pacific to the west, Ecuador and Colombia to the north, Brazil to the east, Bolivia to the southeast, and Chile to the south.

Peru: geography

Area, landscape and national borders

Peru covers an area of 1,285,216 km², its north-south extension is around 2,030 km. The country is divided into three major natural regions: the coast, the Andes and the Orient.

The coastal desert in western Peru, called Costa, is around 2,000 km long and 40 to 150 km wide. It makes up around 11% of the state's area. It is interrupted by numerous cordillera rivers, which are surrounded by oases.

The high mountains of the Andes, called sierra, consist of two cordilleras that meet at Cerro de Pasco. The sierra occupies about 26% of the state's territory. The western cordillera has the highest peaks in the country in the north in the Cordillera Blanca (Huascarán 6,768 m) and in the Cordillera Huayhuash (Yerupaja 6,632 m) and also has numerous volcanic cones. The Eastern Cordillera is generally lower. It consists of several mountain ranges that are broken by rivers rich in water in canyon-like valleys.

In the east joins the Oriente, which takes up about 63% of the national territory. It is divided into the Montaña, a mountain forest, and the Selva, a tropical, humid, sparsely populated woodland (rain forest).

From the area of Peru are:

  • Forest

    Around 66% of the country is forested.

  • Meadows and pastureland

    Around 20% of the land is used as meadows or pastureland.

  • Arable land and fields

    Around 3% of the country (around 3.5 million ha = 35,000 km 2.) Is used as arable land. The main growing area is in the coastal region (Costa). Mainly cotton, sugar cane, rice and fruit are grown here. Since in Peru the annual mean temperatures are still around 16 °C even at an altitude of 3,000 meters, arable farming is possible up to an altitude of 4,000 meters. Tea, coffee and rice are grown on the eastern slopes of the Andes. In the Amazon lowlands, it is primarily pulses, rice and bananas, and natural rubber is also extracted here. Peru is also the world's largest coca producer, with an estimated 6% of the cultivation area used for the illegal cultivation of coca.

  • Desert

    The coastal desert (Costa) in western Peru is about 2,000 km long and 40 to 150 km wide. It makes up around 11% of the state's area.

  • Mountains

    The mountainous country of the Andes, the Sierra, takes up about 26% of the country's area.

The country borders the following five states:

  • Bolivia with a length of the border of around 900 km
  • Brazil with a length of the border of around 1,560 km
  • Colombia with a length of the border of around 1,496 km
  • Ecuador with a length of the border of around 1,420 km
  • Chile with a length of the border of around 160 km

Coastline

Peru's coast borders the Pacific Ocean with a length of around 2,415 km.

Tidal range

In Chimbote the mean tidal range is around 0.7 m.

For detailed explanations of ebb and flow, see Tides, Ebb and Flow.

Compare

The world's highest tidal range can be found in the Bay of Fundy in Canada, where it is up to 16 meters, and at spring tide even over 20 meters. The Bay of Fundy is located on the Atlantic between the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, which is called Nova Scotia in German and whose capital is Halifax.

On the German North Sea coast it varies between one and three meters. In the western Baltic Sea, on the other hand, the tidal range is only 0.3 meters, while it is barely noticeable in the eastern Baltic Sea.

Longitude and latitude

Peru extends over the following geographical latitude (abbreviation Δφ) and geographical longitude (abbreviation Δλ):

Δφ = from 0 ° to 18 ° 21 'southern latitude

Δλ = from 68 ° 40' to 81 ° 20 'western longitude

You can find detailed information on this subject under Longitude and Latitude.

Legal time

For Peru, the following value applies to Central European Time (CET), i.e. the time without summer time. A minus sign means that it is earlier there, a plus sign that it is later than CET:

Δt (CET) = - 6 h

Further and detailed explanations of the time can be found under Time zones, time.

The highest point of the sun in Lima

Lima lies at a southern latitude of around φ = 12 °.

When the declination δ of the sun reaches the value of 12 ° S and the image point of the sun is thus above the city, the sun is perpendicular there. This happens twice a year, 47 days before March 21st and 47 days after September 21st (for details, see the highest solar levels).

Attention

If the image point of the sun and thus the declination δ is north of the latitude of Lima, and this is the case for a large part of the year, the sun is not in the south at noon, as in our latitudes, but in the north. The sun then moves from east to north to west, where it sets.

Mountains, Nevado Huascarán

Nevado Huascarán

The highest mountain in Peru and the fourth highest mountain in South America is the Nevado Huascarán with a height of 6,768 m. It is located in the Cordillera Blanca in the Andes - in the Huascarán National Park. The mountain consists of two peaks, the Huascaran Sur (6,768 m) and the Huascaran Norte (6,652 m).

The summit of the lower Huascaran Norte was climbed in 1908 by the American Annie Smith Peck. The first ascent of Huascaran Sur took place on July 20, 1932 by a German-Austrian expedition.

As a result of a severe earthquake measuring 7.9 on May 31, 1970, a massive landslide occurred on the northwest flank of the mountain, as a result of which the city of Yungay was literally destroyed. Around 70,000 people were killed in the region.

Yerupaja

Yerupaja (Nevado Yerupaja) is the second highest mountain in Peru with a height of 6,632 m and one of the most difficult in America for mountaineers. The mountain lies in the Cordillera Huayhuash - is a mountain range in the Andes with six peaks over 6,000 m altitude. The mountain was first climbed in 1950 by Jim Maxwell and Dave Harrah. Even Reinhold Messner and Peter Habeler tried their hand at the mountain in 1969, taking the previously unconquered eastern route. But on the summit ridge, the two of them had to turn back due to the ground conditions of rubble and extremely soft snow, so that they were denied climbing the summit.

Jirishanca

The Jirishanca has a height of 6,094 m. The mountain is located at the northern end of the Cordillera Huayhuash - a mountain range in the Andes with six peaks over 6,000 m high. Its concise shape, an ice-covered pyramid, the mountain appears like an ice-covered pyramid and is therefore also known as the "Matterhorn of Peru". The Austrians Toni Egger and Siegfried Jungmeir made the first ascent of the mountain in 1957.

Coropuna

The "sleeping" stratovolcano Coropuna has a height of 6,425 m and is thus the highest volcano in Peru. The Coropuna is heavily glaciated and belongs to the volcanic chain (Cordillera Volcánica) in southern Peru - 150 km northwest of the city of Arequipa. As a result of global warming, the mountain's snow line is now at an altitude between 5,300 and even 5,600 m. In addition, the size of its glacier area has decreased in the last 50 years from approx. 123 km² to 57 km², ie more than halved.

Siula Grande

The Siula Grande has a height of 6,344 m. The mountain lies in the Cordillera Huayhuash - a mountain range in the Andes with six peaks that are over 6,000 m high.

The first ascent was made on July 28, 1936 by German mountaineers Arnold Awerzger and Erwin Schneider.

Hunadoy

The Hunadoy has a total of four peaks, the highest of which is 6,395 m high. The mountain is located in the Peruvian Andes - in the Cordillera Blanca in the Huascarán National Park. Nearby - only separated from each other by the Quebrada Llanganuco valley - is the m high Nevado Huascarán. The summit of Huandoy was climbed for the first time by German mountaineers in 1932.

The four peaks:

main peak Huandoy with a height of 6,395 m

Huandoy-West with a height of 6,356 m

Huandoy-South with a height of 6,160 m

Huandoy-East with a height of 6,070 m

Huantsán

The Huantsán (Nevado Huantsán) has a height of 6,395 m and is therefore just as high as the Nevado Huandoy. The mountain is heavily glaciated and is located about 25 km east of the city of Huaraz in the Ancash region in the Huantsán National Park. Like the Hunadoy, this mountain also consists of four peaks - in addition to the highest peak, the 6,270 m high Huantsán Oeste, the 6,113 m high Huantsán Norte and the 5,913 m high Huantsán Sur. The mountain was climbed for the first time on July 7, 1952.

Ausangate

The Ausangate (Auzangate, Awsanqati) has a height of 6,336 m. The mountain is located in the south of the country in the south of the country - southeast of Cusco on the western edge of the Cordillera Vilcanota. The mountain was first climbed in 1953 by the Austrian mountaineer Heinrich Harrer (1912-2006).

The mountain has a special religious meaning for the people of the region. On the north side of the mountain, shortly before the Corpus Christi festival, many thousands of believers - most of them are Indians - make a pilgrimage to the snow-covered heights to the church of Sinakara, where they make offerings. Masses are also celebrated and prayed. Groups of costumed dancers also appeared. The climax of the festivities are the so-called ukukus (guards) with their wool masks and torn clothes. They are responsible for keeping order in the camp and on the penultimate day of the celebrations they walk to the sanctuary on the glacier, where they spend the night and when they return from the glacier they bring small pieces of ice with them, which are distributed among the faithful. You think

Ampato

The Ampato is a "dormant" stratovolcano and, with a height of 6,288 m, also belongs to the six-thousanders in Peru. It is located in the Andes in southern Peru - about 100 km northwest of the city of Arequipa, which has a population of around 785,000. It lies at the southern end of an approximately 20 km long "series" of three high stratovolcanoes. At the northern end is the extinct 6,025 m high Nevado Hualca Hualca and in the middle the still active 5,975 m high Sabancaya. The mummy "Juanita" was found at the Ampata. The mummy was found in September 1995 at an altitude of about 5,000 m. The approximately 14 year old Inca girl was killed between 1440 and 1450 as a human sacrifice for the mountain, believing in a good harvest. The mummy is now in the "Museo Santuarios Andinos" in Arequipa,

Palcaraju

The Palcaraju (Nevado Palcaraju) has a height of 6,274 m. The mountain is located in the Andes - in the Cordillera Blanca. The closest city is Huaraz. The mountain was climbed for the first time in 1939. In addition to the main peak Palcaraju Centro, the mountain has the following three peaks:

Palcaraju Este with a height of 6,180 m

Palcaraju Oeste with a height of 6,110 m

Palcaraju Sur with a height of 5,900 m

Salcantay

The Salcantay (Salkantay) has a height of 6,264 m. The mountain is the highest mountain in the Cordillera Vilcabamba region - about 60 km northwest of the city of Cusco. The mountain was first climbed in 1952 as part of a French expedition. The standard route today goes over the northeast ridge to the summit.

According to the beliefs of the Incas of that time, the mountain represented the deity of fertility and weather in the Cusco region.

Nevado Hualca Hualca

The Nevado Hualca Hualca is a 6,025 m high extinct stratovolcano, which is part of a total of three volcanoes lying in a row. It is located in the Andes in southern Peru - about 100 km northwest of the city of Arequipa, which has a population of around 785,000. It is located at the northern end of a 20 km long "series" of three high stratovolcanoes. In the middle is the still active 5,975 m high Sabancaya and at the southern end of the chain is the 6,288 m high Ampeto.

Yerupaja Chico

The Yerupaja Chico has a height of 6,121 m and is also located in the Cordillera Huayhuash - a mountain range in the Andes with six peaks that are over 6,000 m high

Chachani

The Chachani (Nevado Chachani) is of volcanic origin and has a height of 6,075 m. The mountain is located in southern Peru - north of Arequipa.

The mountain can also be climbed by those with little experience in mountaineering - but healthy and fit people. Due to global warming, however, the ground is thawing, which has led to a certain risk of falling rocks.

In the city of Arequipa, one-day and multi-day tours are offered. The participants are driven to a base camp at an altitude of around 5,200 meters with the help of off-road vehicles. In this respect, only a little more than 80 meters of altitude need to be covered. Quite strenuous at this height, so that it takes about 8 hours to get to the top.

Chaupi Orco

The Chaupi Orco is a double peak consisting of the 6,044 m high Chaupi Orco North and the 6,000 m high Chaupi Orco South. The peaks are in the Apolobamba cordillera in the border area of Peru and Bolivia - about 240 km northwest-west of La Paz. The two mountain peaks are covered with snow and partly ice all year round.

Artesonraju

The Artesonraju is a stratovolcano with a height of 6,025 m. It is located in the Cordillera Blanca in the Andes - in the Ancash region. The mountain has the shape of an icy pyramid and is very popular with mountaineers despite its high avalanche danger.

Alpamayo

With its height of 5,947 m, the Alpamayo is only just below the 6,000 m limit. But the mountain impresses with its extraordinary beauty - it is wrapped from top to bottom in a radiant white of snow and ice. Some consider it the most beautiful mountain in the world. The mountain is located in the north of the Cordillera Blanca in the Andes in the Caraz district. The mountain was climbed on June 19, 1957 by the Germans Günter Hauser, Bernhard Huhn, Frieder Knauss and Horst Wiedmann.

El Misti

So beautiful the Alpamayo, so "ugly" is the stratovolcano El Misti with a height of 5,822 m. The volcano, which is located in the immediate vicinity of the city of Arequipa and is mostly free of snow and ice, is reminiscent of a huge pile of sand or rubble. Because of its proximity to the city, it dominates the image of Arequipa to a large extent, in whose city arms the mountain is located. The Misti lies between two other volcanoes, the 6,075 m high Nevado Chachani and the 5,486 m high Picchu Picchu. The still active El Misti volcano last erupted in 1784. In the event of an outbreak, the city and its approx. 850,000 residents would be severely endangered by lava flows, lahars and pyroclastic avalanches.

In 1998 archaeologists found six mummies from the time of the Incas near the crater, which are now in the "Museo de Santuarios Andinos" in Arequipa.

Nevado Mismi (source of the Amazon)

Although the Nevado Mismi "only" has a height of 5,597 m, it is still shown because this is the source of the Amazon. The mountain is located about 20 km northwest of the city of Chivay - in the region of Arequipa and about 160 km west of Lake Titicaca. During a 2001 National Geographic Society expedition, it was confirmed that the source of the Amazon is on the northern slopes of the Nevado Mismi. This is where the Río Apurímac arises, over which the meltwater of the glacier flows north over the Río Ene, the Río Tambo and the Río Ucayali, where it joins in the northeastern part of Peru with the Marañón to the upper reaches of the Amazon.

Rivers, Amazon

Amazonas

The longest river in South America has its origin in Peru: the Amazon with its source river Ucayali and a length of around 6,400 km, of which around 2,700 km is within Peru.

Other rivers in the country are:

  • Río Ucayali with a length of 1,600 km
  • Río Apurimac with a length of 731 km
  • Río Ene with a length of 181 km
  • Río Tambo with a length of 158 km

With a total length of 2,670 km, these four rivers form the longest upper reaches of the Amazon.

  • Marañón with a length of 1,600 km
  • Río Huallaga with a length of 1,100 km
  • Río Napo with a length of 800 km
  • Río Putumayo with a length of 1,600 km

Rio Urubamba

The Rio Urubamba is particularly worth mentioning because it was one of the rivers on which Werner Herzog (born 1942) shot the film Aguirre in 1971. The film depicts a Spanish expedition train in search of the gold country Eldorado.

Klaus Kinski (1926-1991) played the role of Aguirre. Herzog's 1982 film Fitzcarraldo, starring Klaus Kinski, and parts of his 2009 My Son, My Son, What Have Ye Done, were also shot on the Rio Urubamba

Lakes

Lake Titicaca

The largest lake in Peru is Lake Titicaca with an area of around 8,300 km² and is also the largest lake in South America. Its maximum depth is around 280 m. The lake is at an altitude of 3,810 m. Its western part belongs to Peru while the eastern part belongs to Bolivia. While the lake has about 25 tributaries, it has only one outlet with the Río Desaguadero, which discharges about 10% of the water. The remaining 90% of its supplied water evaporate.

Other lakes are:

  • Lago Lauricocha
  • Lake Junín

Islands

There are no large islands in front of the country, but there are around forty smaller islands off the coast of the country.

The Pacific

The Pacific Ocean is also known as the Pacific, Pacific, or Great Ocean

With a length of approx. 2,415 km, Peru borders the Pacific Ocean, the largest and deepest ocean in the world. It stretches between the Arctic, North, Central and South America as well as the Antarctic, Australia, Oceania and Asia. It has a gigantic area of 166.24 million km² (not including secondary seas) and therefore covers around 35% of the entire surface of the earth. The ocean, which is larger than all the continents combined, goes at its deepest point in the Mariana Trench down to 11,034 meters below sea level. km to the Pacific Ocean, the largest and deepest ocean in the world. It stretches between the Arctic, North, Central and South America as well as the Antarctic, Australia, Oceania and Asia. It has a gigantic area of 166.24 million km² (not including secondary seas) and therefore covers around 35% of the entire surface of the earth.

 

Africa

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