South Sudan: population and cities
Countryaah website, South Sudan has around 12.9 million residents, of which more than 500,000 live
in the capital Juba. Difficulties in determining the population size more
precisely are caused by the fact that around four million South Sudanese live in
northern Sudan or abroad because of the civil war. It is estimated that three
million of these refugees will gradually return to South Sudan.
The low life expectancy in the young Republic of South Sudan is due, among other
things, to the fact that the country is one of the poorest developing countries
in Africa and does not have social security or adequate medical care. Between 20
and 35% of the population are malnourished; and around 90% are illiterate.
The population of South Sudan consists for the most part of black Africans, in
contrast to the north, where predominantly Arabs live. The largest and most
influential ethnic group are the Dinka, who are counted among the Nilots. The
Dinka are followed by the also Nilotic Nuer and Schilluk and the Azande.
While the north of Sudan is predominantly Muslim, mainly animists
and Christians live in South Sudan. Those who convert to Christianity experience
social advancement. In the Republic of Sudan, religious affiliation and social
classification are almost identical. However, the Christianity of the young
country is not free from influences from African religions. This also explains
the diverse ways of living and interpreting faith. Most of the country's
Christians are Catholics and Anglicans. In recent years, however, more and more
American evangelical groups have been gaining ground among them.
According to the new transitional constitution of 2011, English was set as the
sole official language of the Republic of South Sudan. In addition, Sudan Arabic
is still very common as a lingua franca. Apart from English and Arabic, many
languages of the Nilo-Saharan language family are used in the country. These
include Dinka, Nuer, Bari and Schilluk. In the northwest of South Sudan,
numerous languages are spoken that are kept alive by very small ethnic groups
(= Fertit). In the south-west, the Niger-Congo family of languages are in
use. This includes the Azande.
Capital and other cities
Juba (also Dschuba)
Juba, the capital of South Sudan, is little more than a huge village in which
more than 500,000 people live. Historians are probably familiar with the city as
the site of the Sudan Administration Conference (1947), at which the British and
representatives of Northern Sudan decided to unite northern and southern
Sudan; South Sudanese representatives were not present. Juba spreads out on the
west bank of the Nile and is the final resting place of the revered leader of
the Sudanese People's Liberation Army (SPLA) in South Sudan, John Garang, who
lies in a mausoleum near All Saints Cathedral. Thanks to the Juba Bridge, the
city is connected across the Nile and with Uganda.
Bor, whose Arabic name Būr means "port" in its translation, is the capital of
the southern Sudanese state of Jonglei. Located on the White Nile, the city was
named after the Bor tribe and is currently inhabited by about 25,000 people In
1991 it was notorious when the so-called "Bor massacre" occurred there: the
leader of a faction of the SPLA, Riek Machar, caused a bloodbath there, in which
around 2,000 civilians were killed. The city, blessed with large oil reserves,
is still waiting for the completion of the Jonglei Canal, which was supposed to
connect Bor with Malakal, but could not be completed because of the civil war.
The capital of the Upper Nile state in the east of South Sudan is currently home
to around 170,000 people. The city also has the oldest university in South
Sudan, Juba University.
Although a large part of the teaching activities were relocated to Khartoum due
to the civil war in 1989, the university has been in a process of return since
Torit (also Torrit)
The capital of the state of Eastern Equatoria, also known as Torrit, is said to
once contain the Supreme Court of South Sudan. A total of almost 18,000 people
live in the city, which is divided into squares - the majority in round houses
made of clay.
Warrap (also Warap)
The capital of the state of Warrap, which is directly bounded by the city of
Bi'r Qurud, was so badly affected by the civil war that there are currently no
population figures and the infrastructure is on the ground. The Maleit Lake,
about 15 km to the south, is of great tourist interest.
South Sudan: geography, general map
Defined by DigoPaul, South Sudan covers a total area of 619,745 km². The exact border to
Northern Sudan has been determined, but has not yet been marked in parts. It can
be said that the tributary of the Nile, Bahr al-Arab (Kiir), forms the
north-western part of the border with Northern Sudan. However, the oil-rich
Abyei area and numerous border regions that are fed by pastureland and raw
material deposits are still controversial. This includes, for example, the
enclave of Kafia Kingi. The affiliation of the Ilemi triangle in the extreme
southeast is also problematic, because this area is also claimed by Sudan, Kenya
Area and boundaries
In terms of area, South Sudan is divided in such a way that it is
characterized by savannahs and dry forests in the north and tropical rainforest
in the south. A large and significant part of the country is covered by the
so-called Sudd, a marshland fed by the Nile, which extends over an area of
about 55,000 km² between the southern Sudanese cities of Bentiu, Bur and Waw
as well as Lake No. The Sudd is by far the most fertile area of South Sudan
and home to a wonderful flora, which is made up of papyrus, various marsh plants
and tropical rainforest.
South Sudan shares a border with the following six countries.
- Democratic Republic of Congo
- Central Africa
South Sudan is a purely landlocked country and has no access to the sea.
Longitude and latitude
South Sudan extends over the following geographical latitude (abbreviation
Δφ) and geographical longitude (abbreviation Δλ):
|Δφ = from around 03 ° 20` to 12 ° 02` northern latitude
Δλ = from around 024 ° 12` to 032 ° 23` eastern longitude
You can find detailed information on this subject under Longitude and
For South Sudan, the following value applies to Central European Time
(CET), i.e. the time (without summer time)
in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. A minus sign means that it is earlier
there, a plus sign that it is later than CET:
Further and detailed explanations of the time can be found under Time zones,
The highest mountain in the country is the Kinyeti with a height of 3,178 m. It
rises in the Imatong Mountains, also Imatong or Matong.
Immatong Mountains The Immatong Mountains
in the southwest of Sudan stretch as far as Uganda. In addition to the Kinyeti,
there are the Didinga Mountains with a height of 2,795 m and the 2,623 high
The villages and individual settlements are inhabited by the Acholi, Lotuko and
Langi belonging to the Nilots, who practice subsistence farming and cattle
breeding there. Unfortunately, the Immatong Mountains are used as a retreat by
the Lord's Resistance Army. These armed rebels are fighting against the
government in northern Uganda and are also responsible for attacks in South
The longest river in the country is the White Nile with a total length of
approx. 6,690 km. The river flows through South Sudan and also forms the
marshland Sudd, which extends over an area of about 55,000 km² between the
southern Sudanese cities of Bentiu, Bur and Waw as well as Lake No and is one of
the most fertile regions of South Sudan.
The Bahr al-Arab (Kiir), a tributary of the Nile, is also important. It
partially forms the natural border with Northern Sudan.
In the state of al-Wahda on the border with the state of Junqali, the
approximately 100 km² No-See, a body of water located in the north of the swamp
area of the Sudd, spreads out. The lake is created thanks to the flood water
of the Bahr al-Jabal river. Together with the Bahr al-Ghazal, this forms the
White Nile in Lake No.
In the southern Sudanese state of Warab is the 250 km² Maleit Lake, which is
used by the people as a fishing ground.