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Ukraine

Ukraine: population and cities

Population

Population

According to Countryaah website, Ukraine has about 45.7 million residents.

Ukraine: population and cities

Ethnic composition

The majority (approx. 73%) of the population consists of Ukrainians. 11.36 million are Russians, which corresponds to about 22% of the population.

Other minorities are:

  • Jews: approx. 486,000
  • Belarusians: approx. 440,000
  • Moldavans: around 325,000
  • Crimean Tatars: approximately 300,000
  • Bulgarians: approx. 233,000
  • Poland: approx. 219,000
  • Hungary: approx. 163,000
  • Romanians: about 135,000
  • Germans: about 40,000

National

languages State language: Ukrainian; Colloquially often Russian, regionally also Gagauz, Slovak, Romanian, Polish, Hungarian and others.

Religious

affiliation Ukrainian Orthodox (Patriarchate Kiev): 19%, Orthodox: 16%, Ukrainian Orthodox (Patriarchate Moscow): 9%, Ukrainian-Greek Catholics: 6%, other (other Orthodox, Jewish and Protestant faiths), 38% none Confession.

Cities of Ukraine

Kiev

The capital of Ukraine is Kyiv (Kiev) with approx. 2.8 million

residents, it is the largest city in Ukraine and also the capital of the region ("Oblast") Kiev, which has approx. 3 million residents. The city lies on the Dnieper River, which can even be navigated by small ships as far as Kiev, so the city has a port. Kiev is not only the political center of the country, but also one of the economic hubs of the country and all of Eastern Europe: the city is located at the intersection of the traffic routes between Istanbul, Athens, Sofia, Minsk and Moscow as well as between Western Europe and the Caucasus, and Kiev can look back on more than 1500 years of history.

Kiev was founded around the beginning of the 6th century by the three brothers Kyj, Shchek and Choriv and named after the oldest of the three. In 880 Kiev became the residential city of the Rus, in 988 Grand Duke Vladimir I expanded the city into the center of the Kievan Rus and fortified it. In the 11th and 12th centuries Kiev was one of the largest cities in Europe with 50,000 residents. In 1240 the Mongols under Batu Khan destroyed the city and killed almost all of the residents. Kiev was Soviet from 1920 and became the capital of Soviet Ukraine in 1934. During World War II, the Germans occupied Kiev and killed prisoners of war and civilians here. In 1986 Kiev, like all of Ukraine, was badly hit by the Chernobyl nuclear disaster.

Kiev has been the capital of independent Ukraine since 1991. In 2004 it became the scene of the mass protests against the falsifications in the Ukrainian presidential elections, which lasted from November 21 to December 5, in this context one speaks of the "Orange Revolution". In addition to the Ukrainian ministries and administration, Kiev is home to companies from the steel industry, mechanical engineering, aircraft construction and the chemical industry. In addition, the capital is a major tourist magnet and, along with Lviv and Odessa, has the largest cultural offer in the country. In addition, Kiev has an excellent infrastructure: the rail connections are extremely numerous, there are two airports, Kiev-Žuliany and Kiev-Boryspil, in the city center there are subways, buses, trams and a funicular.

Kiev is home to a total of 99 universities. The most important of them are the Kiev State University, (KGU, the National Technical University of Ukraine, (KPI), the National Academy of Aviation and Space, (GWF or KIIGA), the Kiev National University of Construction and Architecture, (KNUCA) and the Kiev-Moglia Academy. FC Dynamo Kiev is the most famous sports club in Ukraine and the entire former Soviet Union. The Ukrainian national stadium, NSK Olympysky, is also located in the capital. Kiev has numerous parks and offers the visitor many sights, for example the St. Sophien Cathedral and St. Andrijw Church. The Ukrainian Art Museum and the History Museum are particularly interesting museums. The Kiev television tower is probably the tallest steel frame structure in the world.

Kharkiv

The industrial city of Kharkiv is located in the northeast of Ukraine and represents the cultural center of the region: There is a university, several colleges, theaters and museums. With 1.4 million residents, Kharkiv is the second largest city in Ukraine. Both the cathedral and the neoclassical theater are worth seeing. The university is located on a square that was built between 1920 and 1930 and, at over 11 hectares, is the largest in Europe.

Kherson

Kherson, the seaport and capital of the oblast of the same name, spreads out on the delta of the Dnieper and near the Black Sea. The beginnings of the Crimea are only about 100 km southeast. Kherson is not one of the tourist attractions of Ukraine, but can score with the remains of the first fortress, several museums and pretty churches. The most impressive building is certainly the Holy Spirit Cathedral with its large dome.

Dnipropetrovsk

With its 1,050,000 residents, Dnipropetrovsk is the third largest city in Ukraine. But it also bears the title of the youngest city in the country. It is located in the central east of Ukraine and is structured by the Dnepr. Dnepropetrovsk is not only an important economic location and formerly an important center of the Soviet nuclear energy, space travel and arms industries. It is also a university town with lots of greenery and Karl-Marx-Allee, a main axis laid out in the 18th century, which shapes the cityscape with its attractive houses. In addition to the rocket museum, the Kodak Fortress a little outside and October Square, the Cathedral of the Transfiguration of Christ from 1787 is particularly interesting for tourists.

Donetsk

The eastern Ukrainian city of Donetsk, named after the Siverskyi Donets river, is the center of the oblast of the same name and the unofficial capital of the economically and culturally important Donetsk basin. It is therefore not surprising that the city, with its incredible concentration of companies and well-trained specialists, is the financial, industrial, cultural and scientific center of the region. Both in 2009 and 2010 Donetsk was chosen as the most important city in Ukraine and in 1970 by UNESCO as the best industrial city in the world. UNESCO also honored Donetsk as one of the greenest cities in the world, which also goes with the name "City of Millions of Roses".

Ivano-Frankivsk

The university town of Ivano-Frankivsk has about 218,000 residents and is located in western Ukraine in the Sub-Carpathian Mountains and belongs to Galicia. The old town is particularly worth seeing as it has been almost completely renovated in the period since independence. The architecture is similar to that of Austria-Hungary. There is also a well-preserved Jewish cemetery in the city center.

Yalta

The green port city of Yalta on the Crimean peninsula is also called "the pearl of the Crimea" and is a popular holiday destination due to its beautiful sea location and exotic vegetation. The city has about 77,000 residents. Yalta is not connected to the rail network, as the city lies on the other side of the Crimean Mountains in a valley basin, so Yalta has to be connected to the rest of Ukraine by the longest trolleybus line in the world. Sights include the Massandra Castle, the Alexander Nevsky Cathedral and the Livadija Palace, where the Yalta Conference took place from February 4-11, 1945.

Kerch

157,000 people live in the Ukrainian port city of Kerch in the Crimea. Visitors mostly come to the city to get to the Taman Peninsula from there. But the city itself also offers a lot of attractions such as the Turkish fortress Jenikalé or the catacombs from the Second World War, which can be found in a former mine. From Mount Mitridat you can enjoy a wonderful view of the city. Up there are the ruins of the Acropolis of Pantikapaion, a historical jewel from the 6th century BC. Chr.

Lviv (Lemberg)

Lemberg is located in western Ukraine on the Poltwa river, 80 kilometers from the Polish border. Lviv has around 760,000 residents, but is a rather tranquil city in the Carpathian mountain range. Many call Lviv "the secret capital" of Ukraine because it is the most important city in the Ukrainian-speaking western Ukraine. The old town of Lviv has been declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. The most important sights of the city include the Cathedral of the Assumption of the Virgin, the Armenian Cathedral, the town houses on Rinkplatz, the Hohe Schlossberg and the town hall.

Luhansk

Luhansk is the capital of the Luhansk Oblast of the same name. 463,000 people live there at the confluence of the Luhan and Olchowa rivers. The city, called Voroshilovgrad until 1992, is more of an industrial location and not very interesting for tourists, but it knows how to please with its Russian Orthodox Cathedral of St. Vladimir.

Mykolaiv

Mykolaiv is located in the southern part of Ukraine on the Black Sea on a plateau where the southern Bug and the Inhul flow together. The city has approx. 510,000 residents and is a center for industry, construction, nuclear power, light and food industries. The large shipyards, the port and the naval base are also important for economic life. Mykolaiv can also be proud of the status of a cultural center; the universities and theaters, among others, are decisive for this.

Odessa

The port city of Odessa in the Black Sea region is the most important port city in Ukraine on the Black Sea with over one million residents. It is an important industrial location and the seat of many scientific institutions. The city is also a well-known health resort. The main attractions of the city include the Potemkin Stairs, which lead from the old town to the harbor, the Opera House and Cathedral Square. There is a botanical garden and several other parks as well as bathing beaches that offer recreational and leisure opportunities.

Uschgorod

Uzhhorod, also known as Ungwar in German, stretches across the border triangle between Hungary, Ukraine and Slovakia. The city is the seat of a Greek Catholic diocese and impresses with its beautiful historic city center, which is flavored by Japanese cherry blossom trees. The longest avenue of linden trees in Europe meanders along the banks of the Usch River, from which the city owes its name. The castle from the 9th century is of particular architectural interest.

Zaporizhia

Zaporizhia is a city in southern Ukraine with a population of about 823,000. It lies on the Dnieper River and is an important traffic junction as well as a cultural location. There are also many parks and green spaces and the small island of Chortysja in the Dnieper River as a further recreational area for residents and visitors. The Kachowka reservoir is only 60 km away from the city.

Sevastopol

The port city of Sevastopol is located on the Black Sea, has around 380,000 residents, making it the largest city on the autonomous Crimean peninsula. The climate here is almost subtropical and there can be temperatures of over 40 degrees in summer, but there is always a light breeze blowing over the peninsula. Sevastopol is part of Ukraine, but the region is heavily dominated by the Russian authorities. Every year the city is visited by more than half a million tourists. Sevastopol is also the educational center of Crimea and many scientific institutes and organizations have their headquarters here. There are more than 2,000 monuments in Sevastopol, but also numerous representative modern buildings. Also worth seeing are the Vladimir Cathedral, the Peter and Paul Church and the Pokrovsky Cathedral.

Simferopol

Simferopol is the capital of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea. With about 345,000 residents it is smaller than Sevastopol, but the administration of the Crimea is located here. The city's cultural highlights include the internationally known puppet theater and the city's art museum, which is also the Ukrainian center of Islam.

Chernihiv

Chernihiv (also Chernihiv) is one of the oldest and most important cities of the Kievan Rus. It was mentioned for the first time in 907 as the capital of the East Slavic tribe of the Severyan. The interested city visitor can still visit numerous buildings from the old Russian era. These include the city's cathedrals and churches. More recent buildings from the Ukrainian Baroque and Classicism periods have also been preserved.

Ukraine: geography, map

General

Defined by DigoPaul, Ukraine is located in Eastern Europe and borders Russia and Belarus in the east and north, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary in the west and Romania and Moldova in the south. Ukraine is bordered to the west by the Carpathian Mountains and the Black Sea, to the south by the Sea of Azov, the two seas are separated by the Crimean peninsula. Ukraine is the largest country in Europe in terms of area.

Ukraine: geography, map

Most of Ukraine consists of fertile steppe plains and plateaus, over 90% of the country is on the Eastern European level. There are only mountains in the southwest, where Ukraine has a share of the Carpathian and Pannonian Plains. On the Crimean peninsula in the south is the Crimean Mountains. Mainly lowlands lie on the plain, for example the Dnepri lowlands and the Black Sea Depression. The Dnieper River, which runs through a large part of the country, has numerous tributaries and the Ukraine is criss-crossed by a veritable river network. In the course of the Dnieper there are numerous reservoirs, there are no natural lakes in Ukraine.

The country can be divided into the three climatic zones of the Pripyat marshes, the forest steppe zone and the steppe zone.

Coastline

Ukraine has a coastline on the Black Sea km with a length of around 2,780.

Area, land use and boundaries

Ukraine covers an area of 603,700 km² - without the Crimea (26,080 km²) it is only 577,620 km². Thereof:

  • Forest

    The Forest Carpathians are not only located in Ukraine, but also in Slovakia, Poland and Romania and form the largest still existing, closed forest area in Europe. The lower areas are forested and the vegetation is similar to that of the Alps.

  • Meadows and pastures

    The agricultural area comprises around 53% of the total area of the country. Only 1.5% of this is again used permanently as cultivation area. There are pastures in the steppe zone.

  • Fields and fields

    The forest-steppe zone of Ukraine was originally heavily forested, but the trees were cut down and extremely fertile black earth soils have developed here; they are among the most productive in the world. Precipitation and average temperatures also favor agriculture, the only disadvantage of the soil is its susceptibility to erosion. The coastal areas south of the Crimean Mountains and in Bessarabia are also very fertile. In addition, the climate here is very mild, so that the farmers can grow fruit and wine.

National

borders Ukraine borders the following eight countries: Belarus with a border of 891 km, Hungary with 103 km, Moldavia with 939 km, Poland with 526 km, Romania with 169 km, Slovakia with 97 km, Russia with 1,576 km. This corresponds to a limit length of 4,663 km in total.

  • Mountains

    Ukraine is a largely flat country. In the south-west, Ukraine is part of the Carpathian Mountains and the Pannonian Plain. The highest mountain in the country is the Hoverla in the Carpathian Mountains: it is 2061 meters high. The Crimean Mountains are located on the Crimean peninsula with Roman Kosch as the highest elevation at 1,545 meters.

  • Swamp

    In the north and south of the country there are lowlands such as B. the Dnepri lowlands and the Black Sea Depression. The rivers here flow very slowly due to the low relief and the banks of many smaller rivers are marshy. In the north-west, Ukraine also has a share in the Pripyat wetlands. The soils here are very poor and hardly usable for agriculture, and the region is also badly affected by the Chernobyl disaster.

The Crimea - now Russian

The Crimea is a 26,080 km² peninsula on the Black Sea. Of the people living here, around 60% are of Russian descent and around 12% are Muslim Crimean Tatars, the rest are predominantly Ukrainians.

The capital is Simferopol with around 365,000 residents.

The largest city with around 380,000 residents is Sevastopol, founded in 1783 on the Black Sea.

Sevastopol is the home port of the Russian Black Sea Fleet, whose stationing contract was extended until 2042 by former President Yanukovych.

Since 1921 the Crimea belonged to the Soviet Union, but in 1954 it was awarded by Khruchev to the "Socialist Soviet Republic of Ukraine". As a result, after the collapse of the Soviet Union, Crimea fell to Ukraine, which had been independent since August 24, 1991.

At the beginning of March 2014, Russia effectively took power in Crimea and was supported by large sections of the population. On March 16, in a referendum, around 96.8% voted to join Russia. Even if the West did not recognize the annexation, this paved the way for Crimea to become part of the Russian Federation.

Something historical In the

past, the Venetians and Genoese established trading colonies here. And here, along with many others, Greeks, Huns, Armenians, Poles and Cossacks lived.

But after the conquest of Constantinople in 1473 by the Ottomans, the exit of the Black Sea was blocked from then on. During this time the Crimean Tars, whose khanate, with the help of the Turks, lasted until 1783, grew stronger. It should be noted that they burned Moscow in 1571, but were later defeated in the Battle of Molodi.

After the Crimea had been annexed by Russia under the command of Grigory Potjomkin (1739-1791), Catherine II (1729-1796) - the great - declared the province "from now on and for all time" on April 8, 1783 russian. in January 1787 visited Catherine accompanied by Potemkin the Ukrine and the Crimea. After the conquest of the Crimea, the Crimean khans were disempowered and many Tatars fled into the Ottoman Empire. They were replaced by numerous Christian settlers.

during the Crimean -The Russians were defeated by an alliance of French, British and Turks in Sevastopol between 1853 and 1856. After the withdrawal of the Allies, the Crimean Tartars fled masses.

During the time of the Soviet Union, the Crimea became an autonomous republic within the Soviet Union. During the Second World War in October 1941, the German Wehrmacht marched on the Crimea. As everywhere in the occupied territories, the Nazis murdered the local Jews, but were expelled by the Soviet army after the battle in Crimea in May 1944.

Since many Crimean Tatars had fought on the side of the Wehrmacht, they were deported to Viewaggons in May 1944, many of whom were killed. They were only allowed to return to the Crimea in 1988. As mentioned, Crimea was surrendered to the Soviet Republic of Ukraine in 1954. After Ukraine gained independence, Crimea came to Ukraine. After the referendum on March 16, Crimea became part of the Russian Federation.

Longitude and latitude

Ukraine extends over the following rounded geographical latitude (abbreviation Δφ) and geographical longitude (abbreviation Δλ):

Δφ = from 44 ° to 52 ° north latitude

Δλ = from 22 ° to 40 ° east longitude

You can find detailed information on this subject under Longitude and Latitude.

Time

In the Ukraine the following applies to Central European Time (CET):

Δt (CET) = + 1 h

Further and detailed explanations of the time can be found under Time zones, time.

Highest level of the sun in Kiev

Kiev lies at a northern latitude of approximately φ = 50.5 °.

When the sun or its image point is at the northern tropic, i.e. at δ = 23.5 °, summer begins in Kiev; this is June 21st. Accordingly, for the highest position of the sun at noon, according to Eq. 1 (see position of the sun):

50.5 ° = (90 ° - h) + 23.5 °

so:

H = 63 °

This is the highest level above the horizon (exactly: above the chimney) that the sun occupies within the year in Kiev.

mountains

Hoverla

The highest mountain in Ukraine is Hoverla in the Carpathian Mountains with a height of 2,061 m. Other high mountains are:

  • Roman Kosch in the Crimean Mountains at an altitude of 1,545 m
  • Tschatirdag at 1,527 m
  • Lapata at 1,406 m
  • Demerdschi Jaila with 1,356 m
  • Karabi Jaila with 1,253 m
  • Ai-Petri with 1,234 m

The country is otherwise quite flat, in the central part of the country are the so-called plates, the higher areas are generally around 200 to 500 m above sea level. Among them are the Podolian and the Donets plateau. The slabs were lifted in the course of the alpine rock formation. There are also numerous raw materials such as iron ore and coal.

Rivers

Dnepr

The longest and most important river in Ukraine is the Dnepr, with almost 2,300 km it is the third longest river in Europe. The Dnepr was of enormous importance for the ancient Greeks and Romans. Its origin is in Russia near Moscow. It flows through Belarus and Ukraine and flows into the Black Sea. A good two thirds of the river is navigable, it has numerous smaller tributaries and in its course there are several large reservoirs that form a network of hydropower plants. Its tributaries are called:

  • Drut
  • Sosh
  • Bjaresina
  • Ros
  • Prippyat
  • Irpen
  • Desna
  • Sula
  • Tyasmyn
  • Psel
  • Worskla
  • Samara
  • Bazawluk and
  • Inhulez.

Danube

The second longest river in Europe flows through Ukraine, it is the Danube. It is 2,845 kilometers long and flows into the Black Sea in the Romanian Danube Delta. Immediately after the tributary of the Prut River, the left bank of the Danube becomes Ukrainian. The Danube has a diverse flora and fauna, many of the animal and plant species have been placed under nature protection. The Bystre Canal, which connects the Danube with the Black Sea, begins in the Ukrainian city of Wylkowe. The Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve extends downstream of the Danube. It consists of four main arms and several side arms and there are floating islands, lakes, floodplain forests and dry habitats. At 5,000 km², the Danube Delta is the largest wetland in Europe, home to more than 4,000 animal species and over 1,000 plant species. UNESCO declared the delta a World Heritage Site and the governments of Romania, Bulgaria, Moldova and Ukraine committed to protecting the wetlands.

Other rivers are:

  • the Dniester with a length of 1,352 km,
  • the Donets with 1,053 km length,
  • the Desna with a length of 1,130 km
  • the Bystre Canal, which flows through the Ukrainian part of the Danube Delta and connects the Danube with the Black Sea,
  • the western bow with a length of 777 km,
  • the southern bow with a length of 853 km,
  • the Inhul with about 300 km length,
  • the Nadwirnaer Bystryza with 94 km,
  • the Solotwinaer Bystryza with 82 km length,
  • the river Oster with a length of 120 km and
  • the Ush with a length of 127 km.

Lakes

There are hardly any natural lakes in Ukraine. However, there are numerous reservoirs along the Dnieper River:

  • the Kiev reservoir with 922 km2,
  • the Kaniv reservoir with 582 km2,
  • the Kremenchuk reservoir with 2,252 km2,
  • the Dniprodzerzhynsk reservoir with 567 km2,
  • the Saporischja reservoir with 410 km2 and
  • the Kachowka reservoir with 2,155 km2.

 

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