Ukraine: population and cities
Countryaah website, Ukraine has about 45.7 million residents.
The majority (approx. 73%) of the population consists of
Ukrainians. 11.36 million are Russians, which corresponds to about 22% of the
Other minorities are:
- Jews: approx. 486,000
- Belarusians: approx. 440,000
- Moldavans: around 325,000
- Crimean Tatars: approximately 300,000
- Bulgarians: approx. 233,000
- Poland: approx. 219,000
- Hungary: approx. 163,000
- Romanians: about 135,000
- Germans: about 40,000
languages State language: Ukrainian; Colloquially often Russian,
regionally also Gagauz, Slovak, Romanian, Polish, Hungarian and others.
affiliation Ukrainian Orthodox (Patriarchate Kiev): 19%, Orthodox: 16%,
Ukrainian Orthodox (Patriarchate Moscow): 9%, Ukrainian-Greek Catholics: 6%,
other (other Orthodox, Jewish and Protestant faiths), 38% none Confession.
Cities of Ukraine
The capital of Ukraine is Kyiv (Kiev)
with approx. 2.8 million
residents, it is the largest city in Ukraine and also the capital of the
region ("Oblast") Kiev, which has approx. 3 million residents. The city lies
on the Dnieper River, which can even be navigated by small
ships as far as Kiev, so the city has a port. Kiev is not only the political
center of the country, but also one of the economic hubs of the country and all
of Eastern Europe: the city is located at the intersection of the traffic routes
between Istanbul, Athens, Sofia, Minsk and Moscow as well as between Western
Europe and the Caucasus, and Kiev can look back on more than 1500 years of
Kiev was founded around the beginning of the 6th century by the three
brothers Kyj, Shchek and Choriv and named after the oldest of the three. In 880
Kiev became the residential city of the Rus, in 988 Grand Duke Vladimir I
expanded the city into the center of the Kievan Rus and fortified it. In the
11th and 12th centuries Kiev was one of the largest cities in Europe with 50,000
residents. In 1240 the Mongols under Batu Khan destroyed the city and killed
almost all of the residents. Kiev was Soviet from 1920 and became the capital of
Soviet Ukraine in 1934. During World War II, the Germans occupied Kiev and
killed prisoners of war and civilians here. In 1986 Kiev, like all of Ukraine,
was badly hit by the Chernobyl nuclear disaster.
Kiev has been the capital of independent Ukraine since 1991. In 2004 it became
the scene of the mass protests against the falsifications in the Ukrainian
presidential elections, which lasted from November 21 to December 5, in this
context one speaks of the "Orange Revolution". In addition to
the Ukrainian ministries and administration, Kiev is home to companies from the
steel industry, mechanical engineering, aircraft construction and the chemical
industry. In addition, the capital is a major tourist magnet and, along
with Lviv and Odessa, has the largest cultural offer in the country. In
addition, Kiev has an excellent infrastructure: the rail connections are
extremely numerous, there are two airports, Kiev-Žuliany and
Kiev-Boryspil, in the city center there are subways, buses,
trams and a funicular.
Kiev is home to a total of 99 universities. The most important of them are
the Kiev State University,
(KGU, the National Technical University of Ukraine, (KPI),
the National Academy of Aviation and Space, (GWF or KIIGA),
the Kiev National University of Construction and Architecture,
(KNUCA) and the Kiev-Moglia Academy. FC Dynamo
Kiev is the most famous sports club in Ukraine and the entire former Soviet
Union. The Ukrainian national stadium, NSK Olympysky, is also located in the
capital. Kiev has numerous parks and offers the visitor many sights, for example
the St. Sophien Cathedral and St. Andrijw Church. The Ukrainian Art Museum and
the History Museum are particularly interesting museums. The Kiev television
tower is probably the tallest steel frame structure in the world.
The industrial city of Kharkiv is located in the northeast of Ukraine
and represents the cultural center of the region: There is a university, several
colleges, theaters and museums. With 1.4 million residents, Kharkiv is the
second largest city in Ukraine. Both the cathedral and the neoclassical theater
are worth seeing. The university is located on a square that was built between
1920 and 1930 and, at over 11 hectares, is the largest in Europe.
Kherson, the seaport and capital of the oblast of the same name,
spreads out on the delta of the Dnieper and near the Black Sea. The beginnings
of the Crimea are only about 100 km southeast. Kherson is not one of the tourist
attractions of Ukraine, but can score with the remains of the first fortress,
several museums and pretty churches. The most impressive building is certainly
the Holy Spirit Cathedral with its large dome.
With its 1,050,000 residents, Dnipropetrovsk is the third largest
city in Ukraine. But it also bears the title of the youngest city in the
country. It is located in the central east of Ukraine and is structured by the
Dnepr. Dnepropetrovsk is not only an important economic location and formerly an
important center of the Soviet nuclear energy, space travel and arms
industries. It is also a university town with lots of greenery and
Karl-Marx-Allee, a main axis laid out in the 18th century, which shapes the
cityscape with its attractive houses. In addition to the rocket museum, the
Kodak Fortress a little outside and October Square, the Cathedral of the
Transfiguration of Christ from 1787 is particularly interesting for tourists.
The eastern Ukrainian city of Donetsk, named after the Siverskyi Donets
river, is the center of the oblast of the same name and the unofficial capital
of the economically and culturally important Donetsk basin. It is therefore not
surprising that the city, with its incredible concentration of companies and
well-trained specialists, is the financial, industrial, cultural and scientific
center of the region. Both in 2009 and 2010 Donetsk was chosen as the most
important city in Ukraine and in 1970 by UNESCO as the best industrial city in
the world. UNESCO also honored Donetsk as one of the greenest cities in the
world, which also goes with the name "City of Millions of Roses".
The university town of Ivano-Frankivsk has about 218,000 residents
and is located in western Ukraine in the Sub-Carpathian Mountains and belongs to
Galicia. The old town is particularly worth seeing as it has been almost
completely renovated in the period since independence. The architecture is
similar to that of Austria-Hungary. There is also a well-preserved Jewish
cemetery in the city center.
The green port city of Yalta on the Crimean peninsula is also called
"the pearl of the Crimea" and is a popular holiday destination due to its
beautiful sea location and exotic vegetation. The city has about 77,000
residents. Yalta is not connected to the rail network, as the city lies on the
other side of the Crimean Mountains in a valley basin, so Yalta has to be
connected to the rest of Ukraine by the longest trolleybus line in the
world. Sights include the Massandra Castle, the Alexander Nevsky Cathedral and
the Livadija Palace, where the Yalta Conference took place from February 4-11,
157,000 people live in the Ukrainian port city of Kerch in the
Crimea. Visitors mostly come to the city to get to the Taman Peninsula from
there. But the city itself also offers a lot of attractions such as the Turkish
fortress Jenikalé or the catacombs from the Second World War, which can be found
in a former mine. From Mount Mitridat you can enjoy a wonderful view of the
city. Up there are the ruins of the Acropolis of Pantikapaion, a historical
jewel from the 6th century BC. Chr.
Lemberg is located in western Ukraine on the Poltwa river, 80 kilometers from
the Polish border. Lviv has around 760,000 residents, but is a rather tranquil
city in the Carpathian mountain range. Many call Lviv "the secret capital" of
Ukraine because it is the most important city in the Ukrainian-speaking western
Ukraine. The old town of Lviv has been declared a World Heritage Site by
UNESCO. The most important sights of the city include the Cathedral of the
Assumption of the Virgin, the Armenian Cathedral, the town houses on Rinkplatz,
the Hohe Schlossberg and the town hall.
Luhansk is the capital of the Luhansk Oblast of the same name. 463,000 people
live there at the confluence of the Luhan and Olchowa rivers. The city, called
Voroshilovgrad until 1992, is more of an industrial location and not very
interesting for tourists, but it knows how to please with its Russian Orthodox
Cathedral of St. Vladimir.
Mykolaiv is located in the southern part of Ukraine on the Black Sea on a
plateau where the southern Bug and the Inhul flow together. The city has approx.
510,000 residents and is a center for industry, construction, nuclear power,
light and food industries. The large shipyards, the port and the naval base are
also important for economic life. Mykolaiv can also be proud of the status of a
cultural center; the universities and theaters, among others, are decisive for
The port city of Odessa in the Black Sea region is the most important port city
in Ukraine on the Black Sea with over one million residents. It is an
important industrial location and the seat of many scientific institutions. The
city is also a well-known health resort. The main attractions of the city
include the Potemkin Stairs, which lead from the old town to the harbor, the
Opera House and Cathedral Square. There is a botanical garden and several other
parks as well as bathing beaches that offer recreational and leisure
Uzhhorod, also known as Ungwar in German, stretches across the border
triangle between Hungary, Ukraine and Slovakia. The city is the seat of a Greek
Catholic diocese and impresses with its beautiful historic city center, which is
flavored by Japanese cherry blossom trees. The longest avenue of linden trees in
Europe meanders along the banks of the Usch River, from which the city owes its
name. The castle from the 9th century is of particular architectural interest.
Zaporizhia is a city in southern Ukraine with a population of about 823,000. It
lies on the Dnieper River and is an important traffic junction as well as a
cultural location. There are also many parks and green spaces and the small
island of Chortysja in the Dnieper River as a further recreational area for
residents and visitors. The Kachowka reservoir is only 60 km away from the city.
The port city of Sevastopol is located on the Black Sea, has around 380,000
residents, making it the largest city on the autonomous Crimean peninsula. The
climate here is almost subtropical and there can be temperatures of over 40
degrees in summer, but there is always a light breeze blowing over the
peninsula. Sevastopol is part of Ukraine, but the region is heavily dominated by
the Russian authorities. Every year the city is visited by more than half a
million tourists. Sevastopol is also the educational center of Crimea and many
scientific institutes and organizations have their headquarters here. There are
more than 2,000 monuments in Sevastopol, but also numerous representative modern
buildings. Also worth seeing are the Vladimir Cathedral, the Peter and Paul
Church and the Pokrovsky Cathedral.
Simferopol is the capital of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea. With about
345,000 residents it is smaller than Sevastopol, but the administration of the
Crimea is located here. The city's cultural highlights include the
internationally known puppet theater and the city's art museum, which is also
the Ukrainian center of Islam.
Chernihiv (also Chernihiv) is one of the oldest and most important cities of the
Kievan Rus. It was mentioned for the first time in 907 as the capital of the
East Slavic tribe of the Severyan. The interested city visitor can still visit
numerous buildings from the old Russian era. These include the city's cathedrals
and churches. More recent buildings from the Ukrainian Baroque and Classicism
periods have also been preserved.
Ukraine: geography, map
Defined by DigoPaul, Ukraine is located in Eastern Europe and borders Russia and Belarus in the
east and north, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary in the west
and Romania and Moldova in the south. Ukraine is bordered to the west by the
Carpathian Mountains and the Black Sea, to the south by the Sea of Azov, the
two seas are separated by the Crimean peninsula. Ukraine is the largest country
in Europe in terms of area.
Most of Ukraine consists of fertile steppe plains and plateaus, over 90% of the
country is on the Eastern European level. There are only mountains in the
southwest, where Ukraine has a share of the Carpathian and Pannonian Plains. On
the Crimean peninsula in the south is the Crimean Mountains. Mainly lowlands lie
on the plain, for example the Dnepri lowlands and the Black Sea Depression. The
Dnieper River, which runs through a large part of the country, has numerous
tributaries and the Ukraine is criss-crossed by a veritable river network. In
the course of the Dnieper there are numerous reservoirs, there are no natural
lakes in Ukraine.
The country can be divided into the three climatic zones of the Pripyat
marshes, the forest steppe zone and the steppe zone.
Ukraine has a coastline on the Black Sea km with a length of around 2,780.
Area, land use and boundaries
Ukraine covers an area of 603,700 km² - without the Crimea (26,080 km²) it
is only 577,620 km². Thereof:
The Forest Carpathians are not only located in Ukraine, but also in
Slovakia, Poland and Romania and form the largest still existing, closed
forest area in Europe. The lower areas are forested and the vegetation is
similar to that of the Alps.
- Fields and fields
The forest-steppe zone of Ukraine was originally heavily forested, but the
trees were cut down and extremely fertile black earth soils have developed
here; they are among the most productive in the world. Precipitation and
average temperatures also favor agriculture, the only disadvantage of the
soil is its susceptibility to erosion. The coastal areas south of the
Crimean Mountains and in Bessarabia are also very fertile. In addition, the
climate here is very mild, so that the farmers can grow fruit and wine.
borders Ukraine borders the following eight countries: Belarus with a border of
891 km, Hungary with 103 km, Moldavia with 939 km, Poland with 526 km, Romania
with 169 km, Slovakia with 97 km, Russia with 1,576 km. This corresponds to a
limit length of 4,663 km in total.
Ukraine is a largely flat country. In the south-west, Ukraine is part of the
Carpathian Mountains and the Pannonian Plain. The highest mountain in the
country is the Hoverla in the Carpathian Mountains: it is 2061 meters
high. The Crimean Mountains are located on the Crimean peninsula with Roman
Kosch as the highest elevation at 1,545 meters.
In the north and south of the country there are lowlands such as B. the
Dnepri lowlands and the Black Sea Depression. The rivers here flow very
slowly due to the low relief and the banks of many smaller rivers are
marshy. In the north-west, Ukraine also has a share in the Pripyat
wetlands. The soils here are very poor and hardly usable for agriculture,
and the region is also badly affected by the Chernobyl disaster.
The Crimea - now Russian
The Crimea is a 26,080 km² peninsula on the Black Sea. Of the people living
here, around 60% are of Russian descent and around 12% are Muslim Crimean
Tatars, the rest are predominantly Ukrainians.
The capital is Simferopol with around 365,000 residents.
The largest city with around 380,000 residents is Sevastopol, founded in 1783
on the Black Sea.
Sevastopol is the home port of the Russian Black Sea Fleet, whose stationing
contract was extended until 2042 by former President Yanukovych.
Since 1921 the Crimea belonged to the Soviet Union, but in 1954 it was awarded
by Khruchev to the "Socialist Soviet Republic of Ukraine". As a result, after
the collapse of the Soviet Union, Crimea fell to Ukraine, which had been
independent since August 24, 1991.
At the beginning of March 2014, Russia effectively took power in Crimea and was
supported by large sections of the population. On March 16, in a referendum,
around 96.8% voted to join Russia. Even if the West did not recognize the
annexation, this paved the way for Crimea to become part of the Russian
Something historical In the
past, the Venetians and Genoese established trading colonies here. And here,
along with many others, Greeks, Huns, Armenians, Poles and Cossacks lived.
But after the conquest of Constantinople in 1473 by the Ottomans, the exit of
the Black Sea was blocked from then on. During this time the Crimean Tars, whose
khanate, with the help of the Turks, lasted until 1783, grew stronger. It should
be noted that they burned Moscow in 1571, but were later defeated in the Battle
After the Crimea had been annexed by Russia under the command of Grigory
Potjomkin (1739-1791), Catherine II (1729-1796) - the great - declared the
province "from now on and for all time" on April 8, 1783 russian. in January
1787 visited Catherine accompanied by Potemkin the Ukrine and the Crimea. After
the conquest of the Crimea, the Crimean khans were disempowered and many Tatars
fled into the Ottoman Empire. They were replaced by numerous Christian settlers.
during the Crimean -The Russians were defeated by an alliance of French, British
and Turks in Sevastopol between 1853 and 1856. After the withdrawal of the
Allies, the Crimean Tartars fled masses.
During the time of the Soviet Union, the Crimea became an autonomous republic
within the Soviet Union. During the Second World War in October 1941, the German
Wehrmacht marched on the Crimea. As everywhere in the occupied territories, the
Nazis murdered the local Jews, but were expelled by the Soviet army after the
battle in Crimea in May 1944.
Since many Crimean Tatars had fought on the side of the Wehrmacht, they were
deported to Viewaggons in May 1944, many of whom were killed. They were only
allowed to return to the Crimea in 1988. As mentioned, Crimea was surrendered to
the Soviet Republic of Ukraine in 1954. After Ukraine gained independence,
Crimea came to Ukraine. After the referendum on March 16, Crimea became part of
the Russian Federation.
Longitude and latitude
Ukraine extends over the following rounded geographical latitude
(abbreviation Δφ) and geographical longitude (abbreviation Δλ):
|Δφ = from 44 ° to 52 ° north latitude
Δλ = from 22 ° to 40 ° east longitude
You can find detailed information on this subject under Longitude and
In the Ukraine the following applies to Central European Time (CET):
Further and detailed explanations of the time can be found under Time zones,
Highest level of the sun in Kiev
Kiev lies at a northern latitude of approximately φ = 50.5 °.
When the sun or its image point is at the northern tropic, i.e. at δ = 23.5 °,
summer begins in Kiev; this is June 21st. Accordingly, for the highest position
of the sun at noon, according to Eq. 1 (see position of the sun):
50.5 ° = (90 ° - h) + 23.5 °
This is the highest level above the horizon (exactly: above the chimney) that
the sun occupies within the year in Kiev.
The highest mountain in Ukraine is Hoverla in the Carpathian Mountains
with a height of 2,061 m. Other high mountains are:
- Roman Kosch in the Crimean Mountains at an altitude of
- Tschatirdag at 1,527 m
- Lapata at 1,406 m
- Demerdschi Jaila with 1,356 m
- Karabi Jaila with 1,253 m
- Ai-Petri with 1,234 m
The country is otherwise quite flat, in the central part of the country are
the so-called plates, the higher areas are generally around 200 to 500 m above
sea level. Among them are the Podolian and the Donets plateau. The slabs were
lifted in the course of the alpine rock formation. There are also numerous raw
materials such as iron ore and coal.
The longest and most important river in Ukraine is the Dnepr, with
almost 2,300 km it is the third longest river in Europe. The Dnepr was of
enormous importance for the ancient Greeks and Romans. Its origin is
in Russia near Moscow. It flows through Belarus and Ukraine and flows into the
Black Sea. A good two thirds of the river is navigable, it has numerous smaller
tributaries and in its course there are several large reservoirs that form a
network of hydropower plants. Its tributaries are called:
- Bazawluk and
The second longest river in Europe flows through Ukraine, it is the
Danube. It is 2,845 kilometers long and flows into the Black Sea in the Romanian
Danube Delta. Immediately after the tributary of the Prut River, the left bank
of the Danube becomes Ukrainian. The Danube has a diverse flora and fauna, many
of the animal and plant species have been placed under nature protection. The
Bystre Canal, which connects the Danube with the Black Sea, begins in the
Ukrainian city of Wylkowe. The Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve
extends downstream of the Danube. It consists of four main arms and
several side arms and there are floating islands, lakes, floodplain forests and
dry habitats. At 5,000 km², the Danube Delta is the largest wetland in Europe,
home to more than 4,000 animal species and over 1,000 plant species. UNESCO
declared the delta a World Heritage Site and the governments of Romania,
Bulgaria, Moldova and Ukraine committed to protecting the wetlands.
Other rivers are:
- the Dniester with a length of 1,352 km,
- the Donets with 1,053 km length,
- the Desna with a length of 1,130 km
- the Bystre Canal, which flows through
the Ukrainian part of the Danube Delta and connects the Danube with the
- the western bow with a length of 777 km,
- the southern bow with a length of 853 km,
- the Inhul with about 300 km length,
- the Nadwirnaer Bystryza with 94 km,
- the Solotwinaer Bystryza with 82 km length,
- the river Oster with a length of 120 km and
- the Ush with a length of 127 km.
There are hardly any natural lakes in Ukraine. However, there are numerous
reservoirs along the Dnieper River:
- the Kiev reservoir with 922 km2,
- the Kaniv reservoir with 582 km2,
- the Kremenchuk reservoir with 2,252 km2,
- the Dniprodzerzhynsk reservoir with 567 km2,
- the Saporischja reservoir with 410 km2 and
- the Kachowka reservoir with 2,155 km2.