Bahrain Population, Main Cities and Geography

By | January 27, 2023

Bahrain: population and cities


According to Countryaah website, Bahrain has around 1.2 million residents.


The Islam is the state religion in Bahrain. Muslims make up about 80% in Bahrain and are made up of Sunnis (40%) and Shiites (60%). Although the Shiite direction of Islam is numerically the significantly stronger in Bahrain, the Sunni orientation is preferred by the government, the military and the public sectors in the country. And the king is also a Sunnis. According to Abbreviation Finder, BHR stands for Bahrain in English. Click to see other meanings of this 3-letter acronym.

In addition to the Muslims, around 9% Christians (Catholics and Protestants) live in the country. Compared to all other Gulf States, Bahrain is the country with the largest Christian minority.

A small number of Jews also live in Bahrain. Bahrain is also the only Arab country on the Persian Gulf that offers a synagogue.

Another 9.8% of the population profess other denominations. The main group are the Hindus.

National languages

The national language is Arabic. However, English is widely used as an educational and commercial language. The most important languages of the immigrants are Persian and Urdu.

Ethnic composition

The population of Bahrain is very mixed and is characterized by a very high proportion of foreign workers. Of the approximately 1,050,000 residents of the country, 37.5% are not Bahraini. Most of the minorities come from Europe, South and East Asia (especially Iran, India, Pakistan and the Philippines).

Social profile of the population

The urban-rural divide is very pronounced in Bahrain. Almost 90% live in the country’s urban regions, especially in the capital Manama.

The current unemployment rate in Bahrain averages around 15%.

As for the age distribution, in 2004 27.5% of Bahraini were under 15 years old. Between 1994 and 2004, Bahrain’s population grew by an average of 2.4%, with life expectancy in the country in 2004 being 75 years.

Bahrain, which has had a fairly good social security system since 1976 and offers free medical care, has planned to introduce compulsory education. However, this has not yet been introduced. In 2004 the illiteracy rate among men was 11%. In women it even leveled off at 16%.

As for the economic situation, in Bahrain it is determined by oil and aluminum exports and the related industries. At 12%, oil and gas look rather modest, along with the 2/3 share of the gross national product that the service sector generates. But oil and gas generate 77% of the total government revenue and therefore the total budget of Bahrain.

At the moment the country is still very dependent on oil. This strong dependency has, however, been recognized. Attempts are made to balance them out by restructuring the economy and diversifying industry.

With 7 billion US dollars, Bahrain is shielded abroad.

Capital and other cities

Manama, capital and largest city of the country

Manama, the capital of Bahrain, is also the largest agglomeration of the country. The actual city has around 200,000 residents – around 630,000 in the entire metropolitan area.

More big cities in Bahrain are

al-Muharraq, approx. 98,000

ar-Rifa al-gharbi, approx. 95,000

Madinat Hamad, approx. 65,000

Ali, 55,000

Bahrain: geography, map

Islands that make up the state

After Bahrain returned the island of Jenan to Qatar in 2001, the island nation consists of three larger and 29 smaller islands, all of which extend into the Persian Gulf. The islands, which stretch about 25 km from Saudi Arabia and about 30 km from Qatar, are generally flat. Only the 134 meter high Jabal ad Dukhan is the exception.

The main island is the island of Bahrain, aka Al Bahrayn. It made up 83% of the total land area and measures 572 km². It is little more than a limestone plateau between 30 and 60 meters high, but it has the important advantage of having enough fresh water. Otherwise the island is mainly covered by sand dunes. The 134-meter-high Jabal ad-Duchan rises in the center of the island, whereas in the south and southwest of the island there are sandy areas and salt marshes. Only the north of the island can be used for agriculture. Check topmbadirectory for politics, flags, famous people, animals and plants of Bahrain.

The second largest island in Bahrain is Al-Muharraq. Bahrain’s second largest city, Al-Muharraq, and the country’s international airport are located on this island, which is just six kilometers long. Al-Muharraq is connected by a road to the tiny island of Jazirat al Azl, which is the main dry dock and the main ship repair facility in Bahrain. To the south of Jazirat al Azl is the island of Sitrah, where the oil export terminal is also located.

There are important fresh water sources on the island of Nabi Salah.

The state prison was once located on the rocky island of Jiddah. Today the large rock formation is used as a holiday resort.

Most of the remaining islands are uninhabited and only used by migratory birds. Many of Bahrain’s islands are rugged and rocky. Often they barely rise from the Persian Gulf.

Area and land use

Bahrain has a total area of 665 km². From north to south the island measures a length of just 48 kilometers, and at its widest point the island kingdom is 16 kilometers wide.

Bahrain is made up of three larger and 29 smaller mostly flat islands that are located in the Persian Gulf. Fresh water is only available in sufficient quantities on the main island of Bahrain (aka Al Bahrayn), where vast date groves and irrigated orchards and vegetable gardens spread out in the northern part. Otherwise, the main island is a limestone plateau between 30 and 60 meters high, which is mainly covered by sand dunes. While salt marshes and sandy areas extend in the south and southwest of the island, only the northern coastal area is agriculturally usable. Many of the other (smaller) islands in Bahrain are rocky and often barely rise above sea level.

The respective proportions of the total area of the country are:

  • Land suitable for cultureAround 3% of the land
  • Permanent cultivation landAround 6% of the land
  • Rest ofthe country About 92% of the country cannot be used for civilization or only to a very limited extent.
  • Oil wells The oil wells that are so important for the country are almost all located near the Jabal ad Dukhan mountain.

Bahrain has recognized that the very intensively used oil and natural gas reserves will in all probability be exhausted in 2015. Even if new oil has been sought since 2008, the country had to develop other economic sectors. For example, extensive experiments have been carried out to breed fish cultures in exploited boreholes, which has happened in the region around Hawar in particular. The country continues to rely on aluminum exports (but has been since 1971) and has already achieved a world market share of around 3% in this area. In addition to shipbuilding, our own automobile production has also become an important economic factor. But the textile industry, the third most important branch of industry, is also on the rise. The soon to be missing oil reserves will also be made up for by Bahrain’s role as one of the most important financial service centers in the Middle East. Tourism is also promoted. This is mainly animated in Arabic. In this regard, around 7 million visitors currently come to the small city of Bahrain, which is popular not least because of the serving of alcohol. Visitors from the west are more of an exception, as the country has hardly any beaches.

National borders, length of coast

Bahrain has no borders to other countries, because the island kingdom is completely surrounded by the Persian Gulf. The country is about 25 kilometers from the east coast of Saudi Arabia and about 30 kilometers from the Qatar peninsula.

The state has around 160 km of coastline to the Persian Gulf, which completely surrounds the island kingdom.

Longitude and latitude

Bahrain extends over the following geographical latitude (abbreviation Δφ) and longitude (abbreviation Δλ):

Δφ = from 26 ° 28 ‘to 25 ° 37’ north latitude Δλ = from 50 ° 21 ‘to 50 ° 22’ east longitude

You can find detailed information on this subject under Longitude and Latitude.

Legal time

For Bahrain, the following value applies to Central European Time (CET), i.e. the time (without summer time). A minus sign means that it is earlier there and a plus sign that it is later than after CET:

Δt (CET) = + 2 h

Further and detailed explanations of the time can be found under Time zones, time.

Highest sun in Manama

Manama lies at a northern latitude of around φ = 26 °.

If the sun is at the tropic, i.e. at δ = 23.5 °, summer starts in Manama. This is June 21st. Then, for the highest position of the sun at noon, according to Eq. 1 (see position of the sun Then for the highest position of the sun at noon according to Eq. 1 (see position of the sun):

26 ° = (90 ° – h) + 23.5 °,


H = 139.5 °

At 139.5 °, the sun in Manama has the highest level of the entire year above the horizon (more precisely: above the horizon).


Jabal ad Dukhan

The island kingdom of Bahrain is very flat. The highest point is Jabal ad Dukhan, the “mountain of smoke”, which is just 134 meters high and stands in the center of the main island aka Al Bahrayn. The vast majority of the kingdom’s oil wells are located in the vicinity.

Rivers and lakes

In Bahrain there are no lakes to speak of and no permanently flowing rivers. However, there are numerous natural springs in the north of the main island and on adjacent islands. Below the Gulf of Bahrain, smaller fresh water reserves can be used to provide drinking water.

The Persian Gulf

Bahrain is completely surrounded by the Persian Gulf.

Bahrain Population