Canada Population, Main Cities and Geography

By | January 27, 2023

Canada: population and cities



According to Countryaah website, approximately 37.8 million people live in Canada.

Ethnic composition

Multiculturalism is an official government policy in Canada.

More than a third of the population is not British or French.

The largest ethnic groups come from Europe (Holland, Germany, Scandinavia, Italy, Portugal, Ukraine), the Caribbean and South Asia.

The indigenous population of Canada (indigenous people) is composed of three groups: the First Nations (Indians), the Inuit (formerly called “Eskimos”) and the Métis (descendants of settlers and fur traders who had come into contact with First Nations women).

At the 2001 census, 976,305 Canadians were registered as members of an indigenous group (3.7 percent of Canada’s population).

There are around 1.2 million people in Canada with roots in Ukraine. Most in the provinces of Alberta and Ontario. For example, over 15,000 live in Edmonton alone – the capital of the western Canadian province of Alberta.

The first emigrants – poor farmers from the Ukrainian provinces of Galicia and Bukovina – came to the country as early as 1891.


Affiliations Canada is home to members of various religions.

Around 44% of the population are Catholic, 36% Protestant, 3.5% Orthodox Christians, 4.5% Muslims, 2.5% Jews, 2.3% Buddhists and 2.2% Hindu and others.

National language

The two official languages of Canada are English and French. More than 17 million Canadians speak English as their mother tongue and more than 6 million speak French. Other languages are also spoken in Canada, with the third most common language being Chinese. Among the indigenous languages, Cree is the most common language, followed by Inuktitut, the language of the Inuit.

Capital, other cities

The capital of Canada is Ottawa with a population of 935,000 or 1.3 million (Greater Ottawa-Gatineau). According to Abbreviation Finder, CDA stands for Canada in English. Click to see other meanings of this 3-letter acronym.

Other big cities are:

Toronto with around 2.7 million residents,

Montréal with around 1.7 million residents, in the metropolitan region there are around 4.1 million

Vancouver with around 635,000 and 2.5 million in the metropolitan region

Edmonton with around 840,000 residents and 1.2 million in the metropolitan area of

Calgary with around 1.1 million residents and 1.2 million in the metropolitan area of

Québec with around 717,500 residents and 768,000 in the metropolitan area

Canada: geography, map

Canada is in North America. It borders the United States to the northwest and south, the Pacific Ocean to the west, and the Atlantic Ocean to the east. The islands of the Northwest Territories of Canada off the mainland, the so-called Canadian-Arctic Archipelago, are located in the Arctic Ocean. With an area of 9,984,670 km², Canada is the second largest country in the world after Russia. Its greatest south-north extension is around 4,630 km, its greatest east-west extension around 5,500 km. Check topmbadirectory for politics, flags, famous people, animals and plants of Canada.

About half of Canada is covered by the Canadian Shield, which stretches like a semicircle around the Hudson Bay.

Its surface is between 200 and 600 meters above sea level, the edges are raised and reach a height of up to 2,000 meters. The following lowlands and plateaus are located around the Canadian Shield:

– in the west the interior plains,

– in the southeast the lowlands of the St. Lawrence River and southern Ontario,

– in the north lowlands of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

The lowlands, in turn, are joined by the following mountains:

– the Appalachian Mountains in the east,

– the Canadian-Arctic Archipelago in the north and

– the Cordilleras with the Rocky Mountains, the intermontane plateaus and the Pacific coastal mountains in the west.

Area and land use

The area of Kandas of 9,970,610 km² is divided as follows:

  • ForestAbout 47% of the country’s area, i.e. around 4.4 million km², is covered with forest. Canada has 10% of the world’s forest and the third largest forest area on earth after Russia and Brazil. Every year 160 million square meters of wood are felled here. There is a species-rich mixed forest in the southeast of the country with maple, elm, spruce and fir trees and dense mountain forests in the west with cedars, spruces and firs.
  • Meadows, pasturesCanada has huge pastures. In the province of Alberta alone, nearly 22 million hectares are used as grazing land and for growing cattle.
  • Fields and fieldsAround seven percent of the country’s area is used for agriculture.That is around 70 million hectares. Approx. 60% of this (around 40 million ha) is used as arable land.

    The most important crops are wheat, barley, oats, maize, potatoes, rape, sugar beet, soybeans and rye.

    Canada is a major exporter of wheat.

  • MountainsAbout half of the country is covered by the Canadian Shield.Its surface is between 200 and 600 m above sea level.

    At the edges it reaches heights of more than 2000 m. Around the Canadian Shield lie lowlands and plateaus (in the west the Interior Plains, in the southeast the lowlands of the St. Lawrence River, in the north the lowlands of the Canadian-Arctic Archipelago).

    The lowlands are bounded by mountains (in the east the Appalachians, in the west the Cordilleras with the Rocky Mountains).

Borders, national coast

Canada borders the USA in the northwest (Alaska) and in the south. The length of the entire national border is around 8,890 km. Canada’s coast is bordered by the Pacific Ocean to the west and the Atlantic Ocean to the east. The Canadian-Arctic Archipelago is located in the Arctic Ocean and extends about 800 km to the North Pole. The total coastline of Canada is around 202.08 km, making it the longest coast of any country in the world.

Tidal range

In the Bay of Fundy on the Atlantic between the provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, there is the world’s highest tidal range. There it is on average 16 m, with spring tide even up to 21 m.

For detailed explanations of ebb and flow, see Tides, Ebb and Flow.


On the German North Sea coast it fluctuates between one and three meters. In the western Baltic Sea, on the other hand, the tidal range is only 0.3 meters, while it is barely noticeable in the eastern Baltic Sea.

Longitude and latitude

Canada extends over the following geographical latitude (abbreviation Δφ) and geographical longitude (abbreviation Δλ):

Δφ = from 41 ° 41 ‘to 83 ° 07’ north latitude Δλ = from 52 ° 37 ‘to 141 ° west longitude

You can find detailed information on this subject under Longitude and Latitude.

Legal times (time zones)

Canada spans six time zones:

  • Pacific Standard Time: CET – 9
  • Mountain Standard Time: CET – 8
  • Central Standard Time: CET – 7
  • Eastern Standard Time: CET – 6
  • Atlantic Standard Time: CET – 5
  • Newfoundland Standard Time: CET – 4.5

(CET = Central European Time, i.e. the time in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. A minus sign in front of the hour means “earlier” than CET). From the first Sunday in April to the last Sunday in October, the clocks are put forward one hour, as in Germany (exception is the province of Saskatchewan).

Further and detailed explanations of the time can be found under Time zones, time.

The highest point of the sun in Ottawa

Ottawa lies at a north latitude of around φ = 45.5 °.

As long as the sun is at the tropic, i.e. at δ = 23.5 °, it is the beginning of summer in Ottawa, this is June 21. Then, for the highest position of the sun at noon, according to Eq. 1 (see highs of the sun):

45.5 ° = (90 ° – h) + 23.5 °


H = 68 °

At 68 °, the sun in Ottawa has the highest level of the entire year above the horizon (more precisely: above the horizon).


Mount Logan

The highest mountain in Canada is Mount Logan with a height of 5,959 m.

Other high mountains are:

  • Mount St. Elias with a height of 5,489 m
  • Mount Lucania with a height of 5,226 m
  • King Peak with a height of 5,173 m
  • Mount Steele with a height of 5067 m
  • Mount Wood with a height of 4,838 m
  • Mount Vancouver with a height of 4,785 m
  • Mount Waddington with a height of 4016 m.


Mackenzie River System

Canada’s longest river is the Mackenzie River System, consisting of the Finlay, Peace, Slave and Mackenzie Rivers, with a length of 4,241 km.

Other rivers in the country are:

  • 3,185 km Yukon River (flows through Canada and the United States)
  • Churchill River with a length of 1,609 km
  • Fraser River with a length of 1,370 km
  • 2,000 km long Columbia River (flows through Canada and the United States)
  • Ottawa River with a length of 1,271 km
  • St. Lawrence River with a length of 3,058 km (border between Canada and the USA)
  • Nelson River with a length of 664 km.


The inland lakes of Canada take up about 7.5% of the country’s area.

The country’s share in the so-called Great Lakes is approx. 37%.

They are located in Canada and the northern United States and are interconnected. Their total area is around 244,000 km². They thus form the largest inland freshwater area on earth. The height differences between the Great Lakes are partly 150 m, with the Niagara Falls leading to the exchange of water between Lake Erie and Lake Ontario.

Oberer See (Lake Superior)

The Oberer See (Lake Superior) covers an area of around 82,100 km², on the Canadian side 28,700 km² – a maximum depth of 405 m

Lake Michigan (Lake Michigan)

Lake Michigan covers an area of around 57,800 km² – with a maximum depth of around 280 m. Lake Michigan is the only one of the Great Lakes located exclusively in the USA. The others run along the Canadian-American border.

The great lakes are the only freshwater inland bodies of water on earth where tides can be observed.

Huron Lake (Lake Huron)

The Huron Lake (Lake Huron) covers an area of around 59,600 km²; Area, of which around 36,000 km² are on the Canadian side – with a maximum depth of around 230 m

Lake Erie (Lake Erie)

Lake Erie covers an area of around 25,700 km², of which around 12,800 km² are on the Canadian side. The lake has a maximum depth of around 65 m

Lake Ontario (Lake Ontario)

Lake Ontario is the smallest of the five lakes and covers an area of around 18,960 km² – of which around 10,000 km² are in Canada. The lake has a maximum depth of around 245 m.

Great Bear Lake

The largest lake located exclusively in Canada is Great Bear Lake with an area of 31,328 km².

Other larger lakes in Canada are:

  • Large slave lake with an area of 28,568 km²
  • Winnipeg Lake with an area of 24,387 km²
  • Lake Athabasca with an area of 7,935 km²
  • Reindeer lake with an area of 6,650 km².


The following islands are offshore or are part of Canada:

  • Baffin Island with an area of 507,450 km²
  • Victoria Island with an area of 217,280 km²
  • Ellesmere Island with an area of 196,235 km²
  • Newfoundland with an area of 108,900 km²
  • Banks Island with an area of 70,030 km
  • Devon Island with an area of 55,250 km²
  • Axel Helberg Island with an area of 43,202 km²
  • Melville Island with an area of 42,149 km²
  • Southampton Island with an area of 41,212 km²
  • Prince of Wales Island with an area of 33,334 km²
  • Vancouver Island with an area of 31,285 km²
  • Somerset Island with an area of 24,799 km².

Pacific, Atlantic and Arctic Ocean

Canada borders the Pacific Ocean to the west, the Atlantic Ocean to the east and the Arctic Ocean to the north. You can find a detailed description of the three seas under the following links:

– Pacific Ocean

– Atlantic Ocean

– Arctic Ocean

Canada Population