Category Archives: Europe

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France Attractions

Brittany According to topschoolsintheusa, Brittany is the largest peninsula in France. Brittany’s special appeal lies in its wild beauty and the charm of Breton culture. Economically, agriculture, tourism and fishing play a major role. On the Finistère (Finis Terra or land end), the spray sometimes spurts 30 m into the air when the sea is… Read More »

Sights of Russia

According to, the capital of Russia is Moscow, an incredibly large city, so you will have to spend a lot of time in order to get acquainted with all its sights. Tourists coming to Moscow are offered a variety of bus tours around the city. During the tour, tourists are taken in groups along… Read More »

Main Attractions in Paris, France

The history of Paris keeps a lot of events that are reflected in the countless monuments of architecture and art located on the ancient streets and squares of the French capital, many of which are themselves historical sights of the city. The Louvre (Musee du Louvre)– a grandiose, world-famous museum located in the center of… Read More »

European Coalition against Venice Part II

Meanwhile, the coalition showed signs of relaxing. If the previous year the too much fortune of Venice had multiplied the enemies of the republic, now the too much fortune of the enemies brought her some friends, for fear of a Habsburg or, even more, French prevalence in Italy. Among these friends, Pope Julius II. Who in February 1510… Read More »

European Coalition against Venice Part I

For the moment, the Blois pacts did not bear fruit. But the obscure diplomatic work against Venice did not cease. In 1507, darkly colored meeting of the king of France and Ferdinand the Catholic in Savona, shortly after the king of France, with the help of the Spanish fleet, had suppressed the rebellion in Genoa. The following year… Read More »

Italy Country Name Part II

To understand the events of the name of Italy in the Middle Ages, and above all to explain the numerous contradictions and obscurities found in the sources, a necessary distinction must be made between a broad, unitary meaning of the word, established with the empire and traditional since from the time of Diocletian ( vicariatus Italiae ,  dioecesis… Read More »

Italy Country Name Part I

According to Antiochus of Syracuse (Dion. Halic., I, 35), the name of Italy derived from that of a powerful prince of wine lineage, Italo, who would begin by reducing the extreme territory of the Italian peninsula under himself, between the Strait of Messina and the gulfs of Squillace and Sant’Eufemia, and, called this region by… Read More »

Social Life Progress in Italy Part II

Such activities also lead us to think of proper bodies for deliberation and execution: the  conventus ante ecclesiam  of the edict, which has a special  peace , that is, it is protected from perturbers with far more serious penalties; or the asamblatorium , as a Milanese map of 879 calls the public forum, in front of the cathedral. These are rudimentary city assemblies,… Read More »

Social Life Progress in Italy Part I

If weak and unstable, indeed in the process of corrosion and decomposition, were the political organisms that arose in the peninsula with the Germanic and Arab invasions and with the Greek reconquest; On the other hand, Italian society in a large part of the peninsula was progressing and becoming more varied and complex and industrious in… Read More »

Italy from 1713 to 1789 Part II

The power of Austria was still shaken a few years later, when, on the death of Emperor Charles VI (1740), the war for the succession of Maria Theresa broke out. But her Italian positions were saved by the alliance with England and Piedmont. The English fleet in the seas of Italy brought decisive help: in 1742, with… Read More »

Italy from 1713 to 1789 Part I

According to transporthint, the war of the Spanish succession, which ended in 1713, was followed in a short time by three other wars that gave rise to new transfers of dominion: this troubled political crisis in Italy in the first half of the eighteenth century accelerated a process of exhaustion, which led to ancient dynasties… Read More »

Romanian Dialects in Italy

Romanian dialects. – Romanian, or rather Istroromanian (which is one of the four fundamental dialects in which Romanian is subdivided; see romania: Lingua) is spoken only in Istria, in two groups of villages divided between them by Učka. The northern group now includes only the village of Seiane, of 540 inhabitants, in the municipality of Castelnuovo d’Istria… Read More »

Albanian Dialects in Italy

The Albanian dialects spoken in the kingdom (see Albanians of Italy) are found in three distinct areas: 1. in Southern Italy; 2. in Sicily; 3. in Italian Dalmatia. The colonies of southern Italy and Sicily speak Tuscan-type dialects (see Albania, Lingua); that of Borgo Erizzo (Zara), a ghego dialect. According to threergroup, the northernmost of the Albanian colonies in… Read More »

Italy Anthropology Part II

Stature. – According to themeparktour, the general average height turns out to be m. 1.645. This stature also corresponds to the general average of humanity. However, we must observe that this figure, like the others that we will present, refers to “suitable” young people, that is, to a selected group. Livi himself, examining the stature of the young people of… Read More »

Italy Anthropology Part I

The first scientific essay on the anthropology of Italy as a whole is due to G. Nicolucci. In the work of this author, however, if the part that refers to the traditions and historical data relating to the movements of the populations that inhabited the peninsula is well developed, the truly anthropological part, relating to the… Read More »

The Italy Literary Language Part II

Italy, along with Romania, is part of the great eastern group of romance countries, where the plural of nouns and adjectives is given by the nominative and not (as in French, Spanish, Portuguese, Sardinian, Ladin) by the form of accusative (e.g.,  muri , fr.  murs , etc .;  good , sp.  buenos , fr.  bons , etc.). Since, as we have already said, the final -s  fell in… Read More »

The Italy Literary Language Part I

According to mysteryaround, the Italian literary language is Tuscan. more properly the archaic and learned Florentine. As always happens with definitions, even the value of this is not absolute. The interpretation that we must give is that the dialect elevated to high dignity of art by Dante, the Florentine dialect, an instrument of spreading the civilization of a… Read More »

Longobard and Italian History Part II

According to iamhigher, the sources speak only of  Langobardi to the defense: then not even all the Lombards must have been. And it was deduced that the Lombard nation was always distinct and detached from the Romans. Alessandro Manzoni saw, still in the century. VIII, open dualism. But one could also deduce another conclusion: that is, that the Lombards no longer… Read More »

Longobard and Italian History Part I

In short, Liutprando failed in the face of the opposition of various and even disagreeing forces, but also, against a Lombard conquest, in solidarity: Greek empire or high and middle Italian dignitaries, often operating with great autonomy from Byzantium and tending to find the their base; duchies of Benevento and Spoleto, that is, large groups of… Read More »

Italy Between Non-belligerence and War Part II

Overall, it can be said that the winter of 1939-40 was neutralist (the new pope Pius XII expressed his desire to keep Italy out of the conflict with the visit to the Quirinale on December 28, 1939); with the first breath of spring, however, interventionism was announced. The starting point was the conflict with England… Read More »

Italy Between Non-belligerence and War Part I

In the early afternoon of September 1, 1939, a communiqué from the Council of Ministers was published in which it was said that military measures “have and will remain simply precautionary” and that Italy “will not take any initiative in military operations”. There was no declaration of neutrality either then or later; and to define… Read More »

German Dialects in Italy Part II

Val Canale. – Another linguistic peninsula is the Val Canale (ie the upper course of the Fella), up to Pontebba Nuova. The profound difference between the two villages on both sides of the old border (Pontebba-Pontafel), now considerably overcome, is explained by the fact that the border crossed here from about 1000 onwards. The linguistic problem is complicated… Read More »

German Dialects in Italy Part I

It is necessary to make a clear distinction between the linguistic peninsulas of Alto Adige and Val Canale (Friuli) in which speech continues on this side of the border, the substantial characteristics and tendencies of modern Alpine Bavarian, and the German colonies in which from the moment of the deduction, all vital contact with the… Read More »

Austria Climate

According to topschoolsintheusa, the intermediate latitude of the Austrian territory, its continental position and the essentially alpine nature of its territory explain very well the overall character of its climate which, if it belongs to the temperate ones, presents great local varieties. In today’s Austria, two climatic provinces can be distinguished: one with the climate… Read More »

Denmark Transportation

Merchant marine. – Both for foreign and internal trade, the sea serves as a natural route. The Danish merchant fleet was composed in 1896 of 810 ships for 381,728 gross tons; today it includes 705 ships per ton. 1,088,006 of which: 496 steamboats per ton. 718.130.147 motor ships per ton. 353,391.62 sailing ships per ton.… Read More »

Spain Literature

At the end of the civil war (April 1939) some writers had been shot (Federico García Lorca and Ramiro de Maeztu among the best); others had fled into exile (Ramón Gómez de la Serna, Ramón Pérez de Ayala, Luis Araquistain, Juan Ramón Jiménez, Salvador de Madariaga, Américo Castro, Pedro Salinas, José Bergamín, Rafael Alberti, José… Read More »

Poland Prehistory

Paleolithic. – The oldest vestiges of man are represented in Poland by the Acheuléan industry of the Ciemna cave in Ojców and that of Okiennik. The first has a local character (so-called Prądnik industry, studied by S. Krukowski), the second comes close to the culture of La Micoque. Mousterian deposits, rare in Poland, have been… Read More »

Sweden in the 2000’s

At the beginning of the new century, the political debate in Sweden continued to focus on some problems that emerged in the last two decades of the twentieth century: from the reform of the welfare state , which has become imperative due to the increasing costs borne by the state, to the rethinking of traditional models of… Read More »

Hungary in the 21st Century

HUMAN AND ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY Central European state. The Hungary, Which at the 2001 census had registered 10,197,119 residents, With a density of 109 residents per km 2, it is experiencing a marked decline in the population, whose signs have begun to emerge since the early eighties of the 20th century. and that in the period from… Read More »

Portugal History – The French Invasions

The French invasions. – After Napoleon’s declaration of the continental blockade (1806), the Portuguese government refused to close its ports to England. Napoleon concluded the treaty of Fontainebleau with Spain, in which the partition of Portugal was stipulated, and had the country invaded by an army commanded by Junot (November 1807). The prince regent, with… Read More »