China During and After World War II

By | January 19, 2022

During the phases of the conflict with Japan, internal political events also took place in China with international repercussions of great importance, events that can be summarized in the creation of the National Government of the Chinese Republic of Nanjing and the entry of national China into the United Nations camp. who supported her in the struggle by any means.

According to DISEASESLEARNING.COM, the government of the Chinese republic arose in Nanjing on March 30, 1940 by pro-Japanese personalities dissident from the Kuomintang, and extended its jurisdiction over all the provinces occupied by the Empire of the Rising Sun. This government was formed through the merger of the “Peking Provisional Government” and the “Nanjing Reformed Government”, which the Japanese had promoted respectively on 13 December 1937 and 28 March 1938. Under the presidency of Wang Ching-wei, former vice president dismissed from the Kuomintang, the new regime of Nanking aimed to prepare the formation of a decidedly anti-communist central government, to replace that of Ch’ang Kai-shek in Ch’ung-K’ing and to make peace with Japan, collaborating with it in the foundation of the “New Order” in the Far East and in the emancipation of the Asian peoples. Thus Wang Ching-wei ended up openly putting himself on the side of Japan, with which on November 30, 1940 he signed a treaty of military and political alliance, the terms of which closely resembled those of the 21 questions of 1915, giving Tōkyō the formal illusion to have fulfilled the continental premise for the march south.

Meanwhile, the national government of Ch’ung-K’ing, which had ensured Russia’s neutrality with a non-aggression treaty since August 18, 1937, tried to forge ever more friendly relations with Western democracies, which supported his protests. on repeated occasions: in Geneva, in September 1937, about the Chinese protest against the use of asphyxiating gases by Tōkyō; in Brussels, in October, during the conference called to resolve the Sino-Japanese dispute; on December 31, 1938, by rejecting the declaration of the Japanese Foreign Minister Arita, which affirmed the exclusive influence of the Empire of the Rising Sun in China and in the whole of East Asia. Other important diplomatic acts followed,

On November 26, 1943, Generalissimo Ch’ang Kai-shek, who succeeded in September, after the death of Lin Sen, as president of the national government, was sent to Cairo to confirm, together with Roosevelt and Churchill, the determination to continue the war until to the final victory and was then associated with the ultimatum of Potsdam of 26 July 1945.

National government and civil struggle. – During the war against Japan, the struggle between the ruling classes and the Communists faded, establishing a united democratic and national front on the surface, which in some regions tried to promote various economic and social reforms, aimed at making the various strata more solidarity of the working population in the resistance and revival. Among the most important reforms there was the agrarian one, which proposed to make feudalism disappear in the countryside and thus to realize a secular aspiration. After the war Ch’ang Kai-shek, in an attempt to prevent the rekindling of the conflict with the Communists, devised an arrangement according to which mutual concessions were agreed, and above all the abolition of the Kuomintang dictatorship, accused of making a conservative policy and exploitation. More than a party, the Kuomintang presents itself as a meeting of different tendencies, liberal, socialist, agrarian, military, conservative and plutocratic, which dominate the politics of the national government. It also envisaged the constitution of a political consultative council, where all parties could collaborate for national reconstruction, the convening of a constituent to approve a new constitution and finally the reduction of the red army. But soon the compromise was broken and the Communists, not satisfied with the dominion they held north of the Yellow River, tried to penetrate the regions cleared by the Japanese. Bloody clashes ensued between the Red and National Armies, clashes that died down temporarily after the Moscow Agreement of August 14, 1945, according to which the USSR was officially disinterested in the Chinese Communists, but had to then resume with renewed intensity. In order to find a more stable basis of understanding, the United States of America sent Gen. H. Marshall, who at the beginning of 1946 managed to obtain a suspension of hostilities and some changes in the direction of the national government, who in May 1946 returned to the Nanjing headquarters. On the basis of a collaboration plan agreed in August 1946 with Mao Tse Tung, head of the Communists, the Political Advisory Council decided to organize a coalition government of all parties and the establishment of a council of state comprising 20 representatives of the Kuomintang and 20 of the other parties (see also the § dedicated to the new constitution and its history). It was also proposed that the government and Communist armies be merged into a national army under the Ministry of Defense. But the conflict did not take long to resurrect, as the Communists took advantage of the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Manchuria to replace them in controlling the cities. Hence the resumption of hostilities on a very large scale and with alternating events, albeit with the local prevalence of the Communists. The gen. Marshall, discouraged, then returned to Washington where, at first, he advocated a policy of minor interventions based mainly on the new treaty of friendship, establishment, trade and navigation just concluded between China and the United States. The worsening of the conflict between Moscow and Washington and the growing successes of the Red Army led, however, a year later,

Thus, the civil struggle between the two great factions has begun to flare up again in all its intensity and, complicated by the game of external interventions, prevents any free progress of the country.

Among the most important diplomatic acts of national China after the war, there are the trade treaties of April and May 1946 with Sweden and the Netherlands, the participation in the conferences of San Francisco, London and Paris, and the already cited treaties of alliance and friendship of 4 August 1945 with the USSR (for which Port Arthur became a Sino-Soviet naval base for 30 years, Dairen a free port and Russia took back most of the railway rights possessed in Manchuria before 1905) and the agreement of 15 December 1946 with the United States.

China During and After World War II