Dhaka, the capital and largest city of Bangladesh, is situated in the heart of the country, in the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta region. It is known for its rich cultural heritage, bustling streets, and a population that exceeds 8 million residents. Dhaka’s climate is characterized as a tropical monsoon climate, influenced by its geographical location near the Bay of Bengal and the presence of the world’s largest river delta. To provide a comprehensive description of Dhaka’s climate, it’s essential to examine various aspects, including temperature, precipitation, humidity, and seasonal variations.
Geographical Location and Altitude:
According to andyeducation, Dhaka is located in the central part of Bangladesh, near the confluence of the Ganges (Padma) and Brahmaputra (Jamuna) rivers. The city is situated in a low-lying area of the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta, with an average elevation of only 4 meters (13 feet) above sea level.
Dhaka experiences three primary seasons: a hot and humid summer, a monsoon season characterized by heavy rainfall, and a relatively mild and dry winter.
Summer (March to May):
The summer season in Dhaka is marked by hot and humid weather. March marks the beginning of the summer, with average high temperatures ranging from 30°C to 33°C (86°F to 91°F). As the season progresses into April and May, temperatures rise further, with average highs between 34°C and 36°C (93°F to 97°F).
During the summer months, Dhaka experiences high humidity levels, often exceeding 70%. The combination of heat and humidity can make the city feel uncomfortable, and residents and visitors often seek relief in air-conditioned spaces or by staying indoors during the hottest part of the day.
Monsoon (June to October):
According to existingcountries, the monsoon season in Dhaka is characterized by heavy rainfall and occasional flooding. It typically spans from June to October.
- June: The monsoon season begins in June, with average high temperatures ranging from 32°C to 34°C (90°F to 93°F). Rainfall increases gradually.
- July: July is one of the wettest months in Dhaka, with frequent heavy rainfall and average high temperatures between 31°C and 33°C (88°F to 91°F).
- August: August continues the monsoon, with heavy rainfall and average high temperatures ranging from 31°C to 33°C (88°F to 91°F).
- September: September remains rainy, with average high temperatures between 30°C and 32°C (86°F to 90°F).
- October: The monsoon season gradually tapers off in October, with average high temperatures ranging from 29°C to 31°C (84°F to 88°F).
During the monsoon season, Dhaka experiences frequent rainfall, often in the form of heavy downpours and thunderstorms. These rainfall events can lead to localized flooding and waterlogging in some parts of the city. The monsoon is a critical period for agriculture, as it provides much-needed water for rice cultivation in the surrounding areas.
Winter (November to February):
The winter season in Dhaka is characterized by cooler and drier weather, providing relief from the hot and humid conditions of summer and the heavy rainfall of the monsoon.
- November: The winter season begins in November, with average high temperatures ranging from 27°C to 30°C (81°F to 86°F).
- December: December is mild and comfortable, with average high temperatures between 24°C and 27°C (75°F to 81°F).
- January: January continues the mild winter weather, with average high temperatures ranging from 22°C to 25°C (72°F to 77°F).
- February: February remains pleasant, with average high temperatures between 25°C and 27°C (77°F to 81°F).
The winter months in Dhaka are characterized by lower humidity levels and clear skies. While the temperatures are cooler than in summer, they are still relatively mild compared to many other regions, making it a comfortable time for outdoor activities and cultural exploration.
Dhaka receives the majority of its annual rainfall during the monsoon season, particularly from June to October. The annual average rainfall in Dhaka is approximately 2,200 millimeters (87 inches). During the wettest months, such as July and August, Dhaka can receive substantial amounts of rain, often leading to temporary flooding in low-lying areas.
The winter months are relatively dry, with minimal rainfall, allowing the city to experience clear and sunny days. Rainfall in these months is typically limited to occasional light showers.
Humidity and Wind:
Humidity levels in Dhaka vary significantly throughout the year. During the summer and monsoon seasons, humidity levels are high, often exceeding 70%. The combination of high temperatures and humidity can create a muggy and uncomfortable atmosphere. In contrast, the winter months bring lower humidity levels, making the climate more pleasant.
Winds in Dhaka are generally light to moderate, with no prevailing strong winds. During the monsoon season, the city may experience gusty winds associated with thunderstorms. Coastal areas of Bangladesh, located further south of Dhaka, may experience stronger winds and tropical cyclones during the cyclone season.
Climate Variability and Extreme Weather Events:
Dhaka is vulnerable to natural disasters, including flooding and cyclones, due to its geographical location in the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta. Cyclone season in the Bay of Bengal typically occurs from April to December, with a higher risk of cyclone impacts during the monsoon season. The city has implemented measures to mitigate the impact of these natural disasters, including improved infrastructure and early warning systems.
In summary, Dhaka, Bangladesh, experiences a tropical monsoon climate with three distinct seasons: a hot and humid summer, a monsoon season characterized by heavy rainfall, and a mild and dry winter. The city’s climate is influenced by its geographical location in the delta region of the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers. While the monsoon season brings significant rainfall and occasional flooding, the winter months provide a more comfortable and enjoyable climate for outdoor activities and cultural exploration. Dhaka’s climate reflects the challenges and opportunities of life in a dynamic and culturally rich city in the heart of South Asia.