There are many ecotourism sites in China. The country has one of the largest number of forest protected areas and forest parks in the world. There are 1,658 forest parks with a total area of over 19 million hectares and 1,757 forest protected areas with a total area of over 150 million hectares. In particular, 6 forest parks and protected areas are included in the UNESCO Register of World Heritage Sites. In 1999 reserves protect the rich flora and fauna of China. World-class geological park located in Heilongjiang province. One of the objects of the park is the natural zone of national importance “Primitive Crater Forest”. It is located 50 km northwest of Jingbohu Lake on the slopes of Zhangguangcailin Mountains. There are 10 craters with a diameter of 400 to 550 meters and a depth of 100 to 200 meters. The largest crater is considered to be 550 m in diameter and 200 m deep. If you look down from its edge, you can see that the slopes are densely covered with greenery – this is the famous natural zone of national importance “Primitive Crater Forest”. It is rich in precious tree species, medicinal herbs and rare mountain plants. Tourists have the opportunity to enjoy the beauty of the wonderful underground forest both on the surface of the crater and inside it. An artificially laid path leads inside the crater. Animals also live in the underground forest. Going down, you can see birds, snakes, hares, rats, deer, wild boars, bears and other animals. The geological park also includes Jingbohu Lake itself and a complex of 5 interconnected lakes, which were formed as a result of volcanic activity.
In the south of Qinghai Province, the Sanjiangyuan Protected Area is the largest in China. It was founded in 2000. According to Top-mba-universities, China.three rivers originate in this place – the Huang He, the Lancang and the Chang. Huang He feeds many lakes, among which the largest are Zhaling (Zhaling) and Eling (Eling). The reserve is divided into 25 key sections, 25 buffer sections and 1 experimental section. 1000 species of plants grow on its territory, 74 species of animals, 174 species of birds, 48 species of reptiles, amphibians and fish live. In addition, there are settlements of several national minorities.
The reserve “Lake Khanka” or “Xingkai-hu” is located in the very east of Heilongjiang province on the border with Russia. One third of its area in the north belongs to China, the southern part belongs to Russia. The area of the lake is 4,380 km2. Swans, Manchurian cranes and mandarins live here, and in the waters there are a large number of fish. The shores are covered with dense natural vegetation.
In the provinces of Shaanxi and Gansu, there is part of the territory of the National Park “Three Beaches” (San Tan Ziran Baohu Qu), the rest of it lies in the central province of Sichuan. Not far from it, 6 km away, is the Xi’an-Chengdu railway. From Jia Liang Zhan Station, the park can be reached by minibus. The total area of the park is 200 km2. Most of the park is occupied by canyons surrounded by steep cliffs up to 200 m high. In this area there are a large number of species of protected animals and plants, there are small waterfalls and dense forests. One recreation center has been built in the park, which meets all environmental standards. It is open from April to the end of October. For lovers of long hikes, several tents have been set up on the territory. In addition to hiking, you can go mountain climbing, mountain biking, rafting.
The Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region has rich ecological resources. There are 8 landscape regions on its territory:
1. Urumqi-Nanshan landscape region. .
Urumqi-Nanshan landscape area is located 50 km south of Urumqi. The relief and nature of the area are exceptionally picturesque: towering mountain peaks covered with eternal snows, powerful glaciers, valleys cutting through the mountain range and overgrown with dense vegetation, lush grasses on the slopes, life-giving mountain springs. Especially it is necessary to mention numerous gorges: East Bayan, West Bayan, Back gorge, Gango gorge, Banfango and Myaorg gorges and others.
It is always cool in the West Bayan Gorge, here is the kingdom of greenery and birds. Snow-capped mountains rise above everything, lower on the slopes mixed forests (willow, spruce, cypress) turn green, even lower meadows cover with a multi-colored carpet. Those who wish can wander along a narrow path that stretches along the bottom of the gorge, or ride a horse rented from local residents. At the source of the gorge there is a waterfall 40 m high and 2 m wide.
Almost opposite the West Bayan gorge is the East Bayan gorge. This gorge is wider, a mountain river flows along its bottom, poplar thickets rise around it, the banks of the river are densely overgrown with grass.
20 km south of the described gorges is the Back Gorge, located in the depths of the Tien Shan mountain system. Giant fir trees grow in the gorge, reaching 40 m in height. Moving up the Gango gorge, you will come to a platform, which during the flowering season is covered with a motley carpet of fragrant herbs.
Banfanggou Gorge is famous for Zhaobishan Mountain. This mountain has a pyramidal shape with steep slopes, under it a meandering river winds along the bottom. Deer, hares and other animals live in this wild region.
To the east of Zhaobishan Mountain is the Myaori Gorge, 8 km long. A stream originates in the gorge, which at the exit forms a picturesque waterfall falling from a height of 20 meters. Towards the upper reaches, the gorge widens, the traveler finds himself in a ravine, surrounded by gentle slopes, where mountain climbers can practice mountain climbing.
2. Tianchi landscape area. .
Tianchi landscape area is located 110 km east of Urumqi. The alpine lake Tianchi is called the “pearl of the Tien Shan”. It is located at an altitude of 1980 m and is 3.4 km long and 1.5 km wide. The greatest depth of the lake is 105 m. The proximity of water and the alpine location of the lake determined the coolness that prevails in this area even on the hottest days of the year. Previously, there were many religious buildings in the Tianchi region, but almost all of them were destroyed. The ruins of the monasteries of Tawasa, Damo, the Jiuxiandong Cave Temple, the Temple of Mountain Spirits, Bagua Pavilion, Haifeng Pavilion, Panszhenzhen Monastery and others have been preserved.
3. Stone forest in the East Dzungarian depression.
In the eastern part of the Dzungarian depression, one can find petrified trees preserved from very ancient times. There are especially many such trees in the Jiangjun Desert. Known for the thickets of the stone forest of the Shishu Gorge (Stone Forest), Zhangpeng (Yurt), Laoying (Eagle), Kunlun and others. In the Shishu Gorge on an area of 3.5 km 2. there are more than a thousand fossilized trunks. The thickness of some of them reaches 2 m or more. Petrified trunks form chaotic heaps. Interestingly, annual rings are quite clearly visible on the cut, and the pattern of the bark has also been preserved. In terms of area, number of trees, and degree of preservation, the stone forest in the Jiangjun gobi rivals similar fossils in America, Australia, and Italy.
In the depths of the Jiangjun Desert is another local attraction – the so-called “city of the devil.” This is a heap of rocks that acquired bizarre shapes during prolonged wind erosion, reminiscent of palaces, then fortress walls with towers.
100 kilometers east of the county town of Mule there is a “singing mountain”, more precisely, there are only five mountains, made of brown sandstone, they resemble giant dunes about 60 meters high. When descending from the mountain, the sand covering the slopes begins to make a ringing, and on the slopes facing in different directions, this ringing is not the same.
4. Altai landscape area.
Altai region within China known for its gold deposits and placers of precious stones. However, the greatest wealth of the region is its exceptionally favorable landscape and climatic conditions. The most picturesque place is Lake Khanas, surrounded by mountain peaks of Altai and dense forests on the slopes of the mountains. The lake lies at an altitude of 1370 m, has a length of 24 km from north to south and 1.6-2.9 km from west to east. It is the second deepest freshwater lake in China. The water in the lake is exceptionally clean and transparent, depending on the time of day and lighting, it looks either dark blue, or transparent green, or whitish. Thanks to the well-preserved ecological balance, valuable species of trees grow on the lake and in its vicinity – larch, cedar, spruce, fir, representatives of a diverse fauna.
Butterfly Valley is located in a mountain gorge on the southern slope of the Altai Mountains within Fuhai County. A stormy mountain river flows along its bottom, lush meadow vegetation grows around it, flowering herbs form a motley carpet. In summer, you can see a huge number of butterflies fluttering over the flowers.
Alashan hot springs are located in the northern part of Fuhai County. This is a whole cluster of hot springs: Milky, Hot, White, Cold, Hearty, Serpentine, two sources of “Eyes” – eight in total. The springs lie in a picturesque environment of coniferous-deciduous groves. The water of the springs contains radon, which makes them healing. Tourists come here in the summer-autumn season.
5. Ili landscape area.
The Ili river valley is a wonderful oasis surrounded by deserts and semi-deserts. The climate is humid and the vegetation is rich. As the Chinese say, in terms of natural conditions, the Ili Valley may well compete with southern China.
At the junction of the Ili valley and the Dzhungar depression within the Bole county, there is Lake Sairam-Nur. It lies in the Tarki Mountains at an altitude of 2073 m, has a length of 20 km from east to west, and 30 km from north to south. The lake and its surroundings are exceptionally picturesque. In July-August, the local population – Kazakhs and Mongols, arrange equestrian competitions and festivities in its vicinity on the occasion of the national holiday of Nadam.
The Gozi Gorge connects the Ili Valley with Lake Sairam-Nur. The length of the gorge is 28 km. Close, squeezed between steep spurs, the Gozi Gorge is famous for its impregnability. Due to the variety of vegetation cover, Guozi Gorge was called the “Valley of Ten Thousand Flowers” and “Paradise”. At the end of summer and the beginning of autumn, landscapes of four seasons can be observed here at the same time: snow-covered mountain peaks personify the winter landscape, an abundance of fruits indicates that autumn has come, a motley carpet of grasses resembles March in South China.
In the Ili region, you can find vast steppes and meadows everywhere. One of the most famous is the Tanbula steppe. There are hot springs here, the animal world is richly represented.
6. Bayangol landscape area.
The Bayangol landscape region is located in the southeastern part of the XUAR. Not far from the district center of Bayangol is Swan Lake, which, together with its surroundings, has been declared the Bayanbruk Reserve of national importance. The total area of the lake exceeds 1000 km2. In the dense thickets of the lakeside, dozens of species of waterfowl live: swans, geese, ducks and others. The reserve is equipped with an observation tower from which tourists can see the panorama of the surroundings. The sights of the reserve include the Guna Gorge and the hot springs of Arsya. The Guna Gorge is overgrown with a dense forest, where snow partridge, leopard, deer, goitered gazelle are found – more than 20 species in total.
Arsian springs are represented by 12 springs scattered in the river valley for 400 m. The water of the springs contains mineral salts.
Lake Bagrash-kel is located at the junction of Hesho and Bokhu counties and is the largest freshwater lake in the XUAR. Onoo lies at an altitude of 1048 m above sea level, from east to west it has a length of 55 km, from north to south – 25 km, the average depth of the lake is 10 m. The lake is divided into two parts – Big and Small lakes. A large lake is a boundless expanse of water, over which fog often rises; in windy weather, waves move along the lake, running up to the shore. Small Lake is a cluster of lagoons and channels, densely overgrown with reeds. If you go to the thickets by boat, then you will have to wade through dense reed beds, where many birds live, in some places you can see a wild lotus, water lilies and other vegetation. In addition to the abundance of waterfowl, the thickets of the lakeside are inhabited by a valuable fur-bearing animal, the muskrat, hunting for which is prohibited.
At the southern foot of Mount Narati is the Kekeu stone forest, which is 9 km long and 5 km wide. These are piles of stone blocks that have acquired bizarre shapes as a result of wind erosion. They resemble either fortress walls, or tree trunks, or figures of people and animals. Here, in addition to stone statues, you can also meet real representatives of wild fauna (antelopes, goats) and flora (including valuable medicinal herbs: snow lotus, codonopsis small-haired, hazel grouse, sweet licorice).
7. Kashi-Khotan region.
Kashi County- a typical area of oasis agriculture. To the southwest stretches the alpine plateau Pamir – the “roof of the world”, replete with glaciers, snowy peaks and mountain lakes. Takmansky warm spring is located 27 km north of the county town of Tashkurgan, the water temperature in which reaches 54-67 degrees Celsius. In total, five springs have been opened, the water in them contains sulfur, phosphorus and other minerals. Visitors can take healing baths.
For tourists, trips are organized to the Merlik Desert, which is located 20 km northwest of the city of Hotan. and is the southern edge of the Takla Makan desert. The traveler, who finds himself in the depths of the desert, in the north opens up a panorama of sand dunes, an endless ridge of which goes to the horizon. And on the south side, a completely different landscape: the blue of the water surface, rows of willows – this is the Merlik reservoir.
8. Khami landscape area.
The Khami district – the eastern gate of Xinjiang – lies at the foot of the East Tien Shan Mountains. The Black Gorge is located 12 km southwest of the county center Barkul. It got its name for the dark green color of the dense forests of spruce and larch that cover the gorge and its slopes. At the entrance to the gorge, you can see a stone stele with a call to protect nature. This stele was erected in the Qing Dynasty and is the earliest conservation monument in the XUAR.
Lake Barkul lies at an altitude of 1585 m above sea level, from north to south it has a length of 20 km, from east to west – 12 km. Numerous water birds live in the lakeside reed beds. The surroundings of Lake Barkul are vast meadows and swamps. Mirages can be seen on the lake. Local residents say that in ancient times the goddess Sivanmu watered the Heavenly horse in this lake.