According to Areacodesexplorer, Guatemala is a Central American country located south of Mexico and bordered by Belize, Honduras, and El Salvador. It covers an area of 108,889 km2 (42,042 sq mi) and has a population of 16.58 million people according to the 2017 census. Guatemala is divided into 22 departments (provinces) with its capital city being Guatemala City. The country has three distinct geographical regions: the highlands in the south and west; the Pacific coastal plain in the south; and the northern lowlands extending to the Mexican border.
The majority of Guatemalans are mestizo – a mix of Amerindian and Spanish descent – although there are also sizeable populations of Amerindians (mostly Mayan), Garifuna, Xinca, Ladino (mixed European/Amerindian), Afro-Caribbean, Middle Eastern and Asian descent. Spanish is spoken as the official language although many indigenous languages such as Mam, Kaqchikel, Quiche, Agua Caliente Cakchiquel, Garifuna and Xinka are also spoken in various parts of the country.
Guatemala’s economy is largely based on agriculture with coffee being its main export crop followed by sugar cane and bananas while other important crops include corn, beans and wheat. Tourism is also an important part of its economy with many visitors drawn to its well-preserved Mayan ruins at Tikal National Park as well as other attractions such as Lake Atitlan surrounded by volcanoes or colonial cities like Antigua which was once its capital city before it was destroyed by an earthquake in 1773.
The government of Guatemala is a unitary presidential constitutional republic with executive power vested in the President who serves for a four year term while legislative power rests with Congress composed of 158 members who are elected for four year terms through proportional representation within each one of Guatemala’s 22 departments (provinces). The judicial branch consists of various courts including Supreme Court which interprets laws issued by Congress or those issued directly by executive branch officials when necessary.
Guatemala has a long history dating back to ancient Mayan civilizations whose ruins can still be seen today throughout much of Central America but particularly in northern parts where their influence was strongest prior to Spanish conquest during 16th century when Guatemala became part this vast colonial empire until gaining independence from Spain in 1821 along with other nations that make up Central America today.
Agriculture in Guatemala
Agriculture is a major industry in Guatemala, with the sector accounting for around 19% of the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and employing almost 40% of the population. Coffee is the most important export crop and accounts for around one third of all exports, followed by sugar cane and bananas. Other important crops include corn, beans and wheat.
The Guatemalan coffee industry has a long history, with the first coffee plantations established by Spanish colonists in 1779. The majority of production is focused on Arabica beans which are grown at altitudes between 1,100 to 1,600 meters above sea level in the highlands of Guatemala. These high altitude regions have ideal conditions for growing quality coffee beans – cool temperatures, ample rainfall and volcanic soil – making Guatemala one of the world’s top producers of quality Arabica coffees.
Sugar cane is also an important crop in Guatemala, with production concentrated in the northern and central parts of the country where it is predominantly grown on large commercial plantations known as ingenios. Sugar cane has been cultivated since colonial times when it was introduced by Spanish colonists who used it to make rum and molasses as well as to sweeten chocolate drinks popular among upper classes during colonial era. Today it is mostly used to produce refined sugar which is exported primarily to US markets while some also goes to Mexico and Central American countries.
Bananas are another major crop grown in Guatemala primarily for export markets although there is some local consumption as well. Most banana plantations are located near Puerto Barrios on Caribbean coast where climate conditions are ideal for growing this fruit crop throughout year round providing steady supply for export markets such as US or Europe where demand remains strong despite recent trade disputes between US and European Union countries over banana imports from Latin America.
In addition to these three main crops, other important agricultural products include corn which is mostly used for domestic consumption; beans which are mainly exported; wheat which is used both domestically as well as exported; rice which mostly goes toward domestic consumption; sesame seeds which are mostly used domestically but some also exported; melons which are mainly consumed locally but some sent abroad; papaya which goes towards both local consumption as well international markets; plantains which are consumed domestically but some also sent abroad; potatoes mostly consumed locally but some exported too; tomatoes mainly consumed locally but some exported abroad too etc…
Fishing in Guatemala
Fishing is an important part of the economy and culture of Guatemala. The country’s long coastline, numerous rivers, and abundant lakes provide plentiful opportunities for both commercial and recreational fishing. Guatemala has a rich marine biodiversity, with over 150 fish species found in its waters. The main types of fisheries in the country are coastal fisheries, riverine fisheries, aquaculture, and recreational fishing.
The coastal waters of Guatemala support a variety of different fish species including snapper, grouper, jackfish, barracuda, Spanish mackerels, tarpon and more. These species can be caught by both traditional methods such as trolling or handlines as well as modern methods such as bottom trawling or purse seining. Most of the fish caught in these waters are destined for local consumption as well as export markets.
Inland fishing is also an important activity in Guatemala with a variety of fresh water species being fished from rivers and lakes across the country. Commonly fished species include trout, catfish, bass and tilapia amongst others. Inland fishing is mainly done using traditional methods such as hook and line or cast nets but some modern techniques like gillnetting are also used on larger bodies of water like Lake Atitlan. Fishing on inland waterways is mainly for local consumption but some freshwater species are exported to other countries as well.
Guatemala also has an active aquaculture industry focused on producing tilapia which is farmed in ponds all around the country. Tilapia farming has become increasingly popular due to its relatively low cost production and high market demand both domestically and abroad. Other aquaculture products include shrimp farming which is mostly done along the coast while tilapia farming mainly takes place inland near rivers or lakes with suitable conditions for growing this fish species.
Finally, recreational fishing is also popular in Guatemala with tourists visiting the country specifically to go fly fishing or deep sea sportfishing for marlin or sailfish amongst other big game fish species that inhabit Guatemalan waters. There are several sportfishing charters available around major tourist destinations like Antigua where anglers can hire experienced guides to help them catch their desired target fish species either from shore or from boats out at sea depending on what they prefer to do while visiting Guatemala’s beautiful coasts and seas.
Forestry in Guatemala
Guatemala is home to a variety of different forests, ranging from tropical rainforests in the north to temperate forests in the south. The country is estimated to be 55% forested, covering an area of 18.2 million hectares. This makes Guatemala one of the most heavily forested countries in Central America.
The most common type of forest found in Guatemala is tropical rainforest. This type of forest covers much of the northern and eastern parts of the country, and is home to a wide variety of flora and fauna, including over 1000 species of trees and shrubs. It is also home to numerous species of birds, mammals, reptiles and amphibians. The tropical rainforest covers an area of approximately 8 million hectares, making it one of the largest areas of rainforest in Central America.
In addition to tropical rainforest, Guatemala also has extensive areas covered with temperate forests. These forests are mainly found in the southern part of the country and cover an estimated area of 4 million hectares. They are characterized by their evergreen trees such as oaks, pines and firs as well as deciduous trees such as maples and elms. This type of forest provides habitat for many species including foxes, coyotes, deer and wild turkeys amongst others.
Another type of forest found in Guatemala is cloud forest which can be found mainly at higher elevations such as mountain peaks or volcanoes where there are frequent clouds or fog that provide a unique microclimate for certain species not found elsewhere in Guatemala such as quetzal birds or resplendent quetzals amongst others that make this type of environment their home.
Finally, mangroves are also present along some parts along Guatemala’s coasts where they provide important habitat for numerous species such as crabs, fish and shrimp amongst other aquatic creatures that make these wetlands their homes while providing important protection from coastal erosion due to their dense root systems that prevent waves from washing away shorelines during storms or hurricanes for example.
Overall, Guatemala’s forests play a key role in providing habitat for various flora and fauna while also helping regulate local climates which help protect against floods or droughts for example among other essential ecological services they provide to both human inhabitants as well as wildlife populations across the country making them invaluable resources that need protecting if we want to ensure sustainable development into the future for both humans and wildlife alike living within Guatemala’s borders today.