Laos, officially Laotian Sathalanalath Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao, German Democratic People’s Republic of Laos, state on the Southeast Asian mainland with (2019) 7.2 million residents; The capital is Vientiane. See itypeauto for Laos literature.
The emergence of a highly developed megalithic culture in northern Laos (use of iron tools, irrigation farming, cattle breeding) is dated around the beginning of the calendar; Their area of distribution was given the name “Plain of Clay Jugs” (Tranninh Plateau) because of the large jugs found there.
Between the 2nd and 6th centuries parts of Laos belonged to the Funan Empire, then to the Hindu Empire Zhenla. Since the 2nd half of the 1st millennium AD, the Lao v. Chr. a. from their kingdom of Nanzhao (Nan-Chao) in southern China into the area of Laos, whose oldest residents were various tribes belonging to the Mon-Khmer peoples. The immigrants, the flow of which increased considerably due to the Mongolian conquest of Nanzhao in 1253, adopted Buddhism and lived largely under the rule and influence of the Khmer empire of Angkor, then the Thai empire of Sukhothai. Larger religious and political centers of the Lao were around 1300 inter alia. Luang Prabang and Xieng Khouang (on the Tranninh Plateau).
The kingdom of Lan Xang and the subsequent Laotian sub-kingdoms
In 1353 a descendant of the ruling family of Luang Prabang, Fa Ngoum (* 1316, † 1394), united the Lao principalities to the kingdom of Lan (e) Xang Hom Kao (“Land of the Millions of Elephants and the White Umbrella”, in short: Lan Xang) and became its first king (1353–73). The capital was until about 1563 Luang Prabang, then Vientiane. During the reign (1637–94) of King Souligna Vongsa (* around 1613, † 1694), the country experienced a heyday. After his death in 1707, Lan Xang split up into the rival kingdoms of Luang Prabang in the north and Vieng Chan (Vientiane) in the center of the country; In 1713, the third empire, Champassak, was established in southern Laos. All three became dependent on Siam (Thailand) in 1778/79. In the war of the King of Vientiane, Chao Anou(also known as Anouvong, 1805-28), against the Thai 1827-28, his empire was severely destroyed and then a province of Siam.
French protectorate and independence
From 1893 Laos was under the protectorate of France and belonged to French Indochina (with the exception of the formally still existing kingdom of Luang Prabang). Under Japanese pressure, France had to cede parts of Laos to Thailand in 1941. In March 1945 the Japanese eliminated the French protectorate over Laos. After the Japanese surrender to the war, the Laotian Prince Phetsarat (* 1890, † 1959) proclaimed the country’s independence in September 1945; On October 12, 1945, the provisional government of the Pathet Lao (Land Lao) was created against the objection of the king, who wanted to continue to cooperate with France. In the spring of 1946, however, the French occupied the country again and set the monarch of Luang Prabang, Sisavang Vong (* 1885, † 1959; Reign 1904-59), as king of all Laos and achieved the return of the areas given to Thailand. In 1949 the French government recognized Laos’ independence as part of the French Union ; After the French defeat in the Indochina War, the country received full state sovereignty in 1954 (Geneva Indochina Conference) (1955 admission to the UN).