According to 3rjewelry, Madagascar is a country in Africa.the Malagasy language literature was, before the European penetration, eminently oral, giving rise to a true national culture. The prestige conferred on the rhythmic word-image has made poetry a kind of spell, from which a utilitarian aim is never separated: to capture reality in order to act on it. When not inspired by precise circumstances, the poem gets lost in reveries that reveal its Asian origins. This literary production is configured in the following genres: Hain-Teny, or learned words, poetry with alternate songs that still exists, without the musical accompaniment that supported it in the form of oratorical duels; Kabary, or royal proclamations, which hand down the testament of past generations in the highest and most rigorous form of national eloquence; Ohabolana, or wisdom books; Angano, fabulous tales and cosmological myths; Velatri, or prayers; Tangehitri, or fables and riddles; Tsireko, death songs; Atsa, songs with drum accompaniment. There was also an intermediate genre between the novel and the theater, whose fictional dialogues were recited, sung and danced by itinerant actors-singers, called mpilalao. After the European penetration, the first vernacular language newspaper appeared in 1866, Teni Soa (The good word). Journalism and literature written in Malagasy were born, among which the Hain-Teny by Ingahiba Rainitovo and the sentimental and edifying novels by Rabary (1864-1947) stand out. But above all, the theater has benefited from Western forms and techniques. Thus was born the Kaonseritra, a hybrid genre between the music hall and the oratory. At the beginning of the century the first written plays appear. Three names illustrate the first generation of Malagasy playwrights: Alexis Rakotobe, Justin Rainizabololona (1861-1938) and Tselatra Rajaonah (1863-1931), followed by Dondavitra (1880-1936; aka CA Razafimahefa), W. Ravelomodia (1886-1951), R. Andrianjafy (1888-1917), Jasmina Ratsimiseta (1890-1946), N. Rabemanantsoa (1892-1944), Charlotte Razafiniaina (1894-?), First Malagasy novelist, and especially Arthur Razakarivony (1897-1965), who, under the pseudonym of Rodlish, has given the theater a new dimension by turning it to psychological and social analysis. French colonization dealt a rude blow to written vernacular literature. The great poet JJ Rabéarivelo (1903-1937), while remaining bilingual and faithful to the national genius, already expresses the fusion of two cultures, more evident in the poetry and epic-lyric dramas of J. Rabémananjara, more nuanced in Flavien Ranaivo. The most popular poet is, perhaps, Havana-Ramonontoanina; the one that has suffered most from foreign influences, and in particular from the négritude movement, is Thomas Rahandra. The novel exalts the virtues of the ancestors and the sense of duty (A. Rina), or the individual moral value against caste prejudices. Among the best known novelists are C. Rajœlisolo and MF Robinary. The foundation of the Accademia Malgascia (1902) helped to create an intellectual center and to safeguard the cultural heritage, forming a link between past and present, giving rise to an important series of historical-ethnographic studies. Even before the French penetration, Rabézandrina had collected the ancestral customs in a vast work. Razafimino (1887-1930), with a history of local religions, Razafintsalama (1885-1963), with works on linguistics, and Ratreina for comparative philosophy took his path., created by F. Randriamanana and P. Ramonasé, and Jarivo, in which J. Rakotoniaïny, Fredy-Rajaoféra, Rajaonah and P. Rajaobélina collaborate. They express the need to create a modern culture but faithful to Malagasy traditions. After a period of crisis, literature experiences a new flowering in the eighties of the century. XX and reveals two trends. The first exalts the new regime and deals with general and universal themes with optimism, in poems, novels and plays that do not depart from established formal structures.
We mention: Randriamarozaka, R. Rajemisa-Raolison, C. Rafenomanjato, RD Andriamiharisoa, R. Wilson, SA Ravoaja, J. Rakotondradany. The second upsets the stylistic structures, the chronological links, gives free rein to an unbridled and visionary fantasy, disrupts the language, highlights a profound inner torment and a social crisis, demystifies taboos and traditions, denounces the evils of society with violence and sarcasm and presents a pessimistic vision of reality. Among the many poets, novelists and theatrical authors we mention: N. Randriamirado, D. Jaomanoro, M. Rakotoson, N. Rabeorizafi, Bao Ralambo, B. Andrianabolo, A. Ravoson, C. Ramanantsoa, Plibiche. The commemoration of the 50th anniversary of the death of the great poet Rabéarivelo, in 1987, offered the opportunity for a rediscovery of the richness of his work and gave new impetus to national literature. His lesson was taken up by Flavien Ranaivo and Lucien-Xavier Andrianarahinjaka. However, the popularity of Rabéarivelo had already known a revival thanks to the Les Fruits du Terroir movement which wanted to re-emerge the foundations of Malagasy culture; some poetic texts by the great author had then been translated into music. Madagascan literary French has little divergence from standard French. If the aforementioned authors write in the national language as well as in French, there are many who are limited to the use of this only and who are part of the higher social classes. There is also a public reason that can motivate the choice: international diffusion is facilitated by a communication in French. The favorite themes of Malagasy authors are however linked to the people of the country portrayed in all its facets. Poetry flourished more than the novel, finding new forms of expression with D. Jaomanora, M. Ravoniandra and M. Rakotoson. The latter, also a novelist, has imposed herself with Dadabé (1984), in which he retraces his childhood and Le bain des reliques (1988). Tones marked by optimism in Le pétale écarlate (1990) by C. Rafenomanjato. On the whole, it is impossible to insert the Malagasy novel in the framework of the general African production. It is characterized by a set of individualities each with its own characteristics. The short story is a great success. We should remember the stories of JL Raharimanana (L’enfant riche, 1990), of N. Raharimanana (Grande-mère, 1991), of S. Rodin (Chien de soleil, 1990) and of JC Fota (L’Escale, 1990). The theatrical production is also lively. To remember also D. Rabezanahary (Tout part en fumée… sauf amaitié, 1991), (Le prophète et le Président, 1990), H. Randrianierenana (La conférence de presse, 1991). JL Raharimamana dedicates himself to a literature of denunciation against violence in Africa with the works Rêves sous le linceul (1998), on the civil war in Rwanda, and Nour, 1947 (2003); in the latter novel he tells of the revolt of 1947, severely repressed by the French.