The history of Paris keeps a lot of events that are reflected in the countless monuments of architecture and art located on the ancient streets and squares of the French capital, many of which are themselves historical sights of the city.
The Louvre (Musee du Louvre)– a grandiose, world-famous museum located in the center of Paris, the third in the world in terms of area – more than 160 thousand m2, of which almost 60 thousand m2 is occupied by expositions. The museum, opened in 1793, is housed in the Louvre Palace (Palais du Louvre), a former fortress built in the 12th century during the reign of Philip II. More than 380 thousand items are stored in 8 departments of the Louvre and 35 thousand works of art are exhibited. The Louvre museums include collections on the following topics: Ancient East, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Etruria, Rome; Islamic art, Sculptures, Art objects, Visual arts, Graphic arts. Among the world’s masterpieces kept in the Louvre: Gioconda (Mona Lisa) and other paintings by Leonardo de Vinci; Venus de Milo, paintings by Rembrandt, Titian, one of the oldest legislative monuments – the code of laws of Hammurabi,
Notre Dame de Paris (Notre Dame de Paris) is a legendary Gothic cathedral located in the eastern part of the Ile de la Cité, on the site of the first Christian church in Paris – St. Stephen’s Basilica, and sung by Hugo in the novel of the same name. The construction of the cathedral lasted from 1163 to 1345. Many architects took part in the construction of the cathedral, but two are considered the main ones – Jean de Chelle and Pierre de Montreuil. Coronations and marriages of royalty have been held within the walls of this magnificent cathedral for many centuries. In addition to grandiose architecture and delightful interior decoration, Notre Dame has a unique organ with 109 registers and about 7800 pipes.
Chapel Sainte Chapelle (La Sainte Chapelle) – a magnificent 36-meter church, a pearl of Gothic architecture, built in 1246-1248. especially for the storage of relics – the crown of thorns of Christ and a particle of His cross. The interior of the chapel is decorated with amazing stained-glass windows depicting religious scenes.
Montmartre (Montmartre,. Mount Martyrs) – the highest point in Paris, a majestic 130-meter hill, towering in the northern part of the city. Since the 19th century, Montmartre has been considered the mecca of the bohemian world of Paris. Van Gogh, Renoir, Picasso, Verlaine, Rambo often visited here, Berlioz, Dumas son, Heine are buried in the Montmartre cemetery. At the foot of the hill is the famous cabaret “Moulin Rouge”, and at the top rises the snow-white Basilica of Sacré-Coeur (Basilique du Sacré Cœur – “Basilica of the Sacred Heart”), built in 1876-1910, of amazing beauty. designed by the architect Abadi.
The Eiffel Tower (la tour Eiffel) is a symbol of Paris and France, a unique 300-meter tower built by the architect Gustave Eiffel for the World Exhibition of 1889.
The triumphal arch (arc de triomphe de l’Étoile) is a monumental arch 49.5 m high, built by order of Napoleon by the architect Jean Chalgrin in 1806-1836. in honor of the military victories of France during the Revolution and the first Empire. The arch rises on Charles de Gaulle Square.
Invalides (Les Invalides) is a complex of buildings in the center of Paris associated with the military history of France and includes the Invalides, the Cathedral and the Church of St. Louis. Les Invalides was founded by order of Louis XIV in 1670. Today, the complex houses the Museum of the Army, the Museum of Plans and Reliefs, the Museum of Modern History, as well as the burial places of prominent French figures, including the tomb of Napoleon Bonaparte.
Pantheon (Pantheon) – a majestic building in neoclassical style, located in the Latin Quarter, built in 1789. Originally there was the church of St.. Genevieve, later – the tomb of prominent people of France, including Victor Hugo, Emile Zola, Pierre and Marie Curie, Dumas Père and many others.
The Orsay Museum (Musée d’Orsay) is a famous museum of fine and applied arts, opened in 1900 in the former building of the railway station of the same name. Today the Musée d’Orsay presents one of the largest collections of French painting and sculpture, both Impressionism and Post-Impressionism.
The Rodin Museum (Musée Rodin) is a museum of the famous sculptor Auguste Rodin, located in the Biron mansion, where Rodin lived until 1908. The museum, opened in 1919, presents most of the works of the great sculptor, including The Thinker and The Kiss, with many of the sculptures are located in the museum’s picturesque park.
Conciergerie (La Conciergerie) – a majestic building in the western part of the island of Cité, a former royal castle and prison, is part of the Palace of Justice complex. The most high-profile trials were held within these walls – over Sarah Bernhardt and Emile Zola, the robber Cartouche, Marie Antoinette and Mata Harry were imprisoned here until the very execution.
The Tuileries Garden (le jardin des Tuileries) is an old historical garden, spread over 25 hectares in the very center of Paris and created in 1564 by order of Marie de Medici.
Palais Garnier or Opéra Garnier is a magnificent palace in the heart of Paris, built in the Beaux-Arts style from 1860 to 1875. The building houses the Paris State Opera, as well as a museum-library.
Comedy Francaise (Comédie-Française, Théâtre Français) is a theater located in the Palais Royal and founded in 1680 by decree of King Louis XIV. The theater is also called the “House of Molière”, it is the only government-funded theater in France, and Sarah Bernard performed on the stage of the Comédie Française.