(República del Perú). State of South America (1,285,216 km²). Capital: Lima. Administrative division: departments (25), constitutional province (1). Population: 20,475,144 (2013 estimate). Language: Aymará, Quechua and Spanish (official). Religion: Catholics 81.3%, Evangelicals 12.5%, non-religious / atheists 2.9%, others 3.3%. Monetary unit: new sol (100 cents). Human Development Index: 0.737 (82nd place). Borders: Colombia and Ecuador (N), Brazil (E), Bolivia (SE), Chile (S), Pacific Ocean (W). Member of: OAS, UN and WTO, MERCOSUR associate.
Independent since 1821, Peru is a presidential republic. According to the Constitution approved by referendum in October 1993 and promulgated in December of the same year, executive power is exercised by the President of the Republic, elected for 5 years by direct universal suffrage and, according to a constitutional amendment of 2000, not re-eligible. He is flanked in the exercise of power by the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers, presidential nominated. Legislative power is exercised by the unicameral Congress, elected by universal suffrage for a five-year term. The judiciary is based on continental European law; the country accepts the enactments of the International Court of Justice, but with reservations. Justice is administered by the Supreme Court. The death penalty, abolished in 1979, it is intended only for war crimes. The defense of the state is organized in the three traditional forces: army, navy, air force; military service is not compulsory and can be performed by men and women on a voluntary basis from the age of 18. The scholastic organization was, from the Spanish domination until the eighteenth century under the responsibility of the Church: the creation, by papal bull, of the oldest American university (San Marcos of Lima, 1551) testifies to this.
According to educationvv, the schooling of the peasant masses, also complicated by the presence of multiple languages, has been the subject of a long and difficult process, despite the imposition of compulsory schooling sanctioned by law in 1901. The illiteracy rate remains very high (10.4% in 2007). Education is compulsory in the period of age between 7 and 16 years; the entire organization of school cycles, from pre-primary education (1 year from 5 years of age) to primary and secondary education (6 and 5 years respectively) at university levels has been revised to coincide with the 1968 reform. Higher education is given in several universities, including Lima (Agraria, 1902; Garcilaso de la Vega, 1964; Federico Villarreal, 1963; Nacional de Ingeniería, 1855; San Marcos, 1551; Católica del Perú, 1917; del Pacifico, 1962), Iquitos (1961), Huancayo (1962), Arequipa (1828), Cusco (1962), Ayacucho (1677), Ica (1961), Trujillo (1824), Piura (Universidad Nacional, 1961, and Universidad de Piura, 1968). Nacional de Ingeniería, 1855; San Marcos, 1551; Católica del Peru, 1917; del Pacifico, 1962), Iquitos (1961), Huancayo (1962), Arequipa (1828), Cusco (1962), Ayacucho (1677), Ica (1961), Trujillo (1824), Piura (Universidad Nacional, 1961, and Universidad de Piura, 1968). Nacional de Ingeniería, 1855; San Marcos, 1551; Católica del Peru, 1917; del Pacifico, 1962), Iquitos (1961), Huancayo (1962), Arequipa (1828), Cusco (1962), Ayacucho (1677), Ica (1961), Trujillo (1824), Piura (Universidad Nacional, 1961, and Universidad de Piura, 1968).
Arequipa [- ki], capital of the department Arequipa, southwest Peru, 2363 m above sea level, at the foot of Misti, second largest agglomeration of the country (2017) 1,002,800 residents.
Often damaged by earthquakes and volcanic activity (most recently 2001); Archbishopric; two universities, archaeological museum; most important trading center of southern Peru; Food, cement, steel, chemical and textile industries; Tourism; international Airport.
The historic city center has been declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Colonial buildings, partly made of white tuff: La Compañía monastery with beautiful cloister, church with richly designed baroque facade (1698); Santo Domingo Church (around 1664), Santa Catalina Monastery (founded 1580).
Arequipa was re-founded in 1540 at the behest of the conquistador F. Pizarro on the site of a destroyed Inca city and was initially called Villa Hermosa de la Asunción.
Trujillo, [tru xijo], capital of the department of La Libertad, Peru, in the middle of irrigated regions, (2017) 857 100 residents.
Archbishopric; two universities; archaeological museum; Asparagus and rice cultivation (irrigation agriculture), otherwise shoe, sugar, textile factories, breweries, construction industry, mechanical engineering; Tourism (beaches); near the export port of Salaverry. – The old town is characterized by buildings from the Spanish colonial era. Famous sites from the Moche and Chimu cultures can be found in the vicinity of Trujillo.
Trujillo was founded in 1535 by F. Pizarro and named after his birthplace in Spain.
Chiclayo [t ʃ -], capital of the Lambayeque department, Peru, (2017) 607,000 residents.
Bishopric; several state and private universities, museums; most important commercial and industrial city in northern Peru (sugar and pulp industry), trading port; Cotton, rice and sugar cane cultivation in coastal oasis (Tinajones irrigation area); international Airport. – Archaeological sites in the area (including those from the Moche culture).
Piura, capital of the department of the same name, northwestern Peru, in the coastal desert, (2017) 460 900 residents.
Archbishopric; TU (founded in 1962), private university (founded in 1967); Museum; Cotton growing, trading and processing, silverware; Tourism (beaches); Airport.
Founded in 1532 as the first Spanish city in Peru by F. Pizarro under the name of San Miguel de Piura near the present-day location, relocated in 1534 and 1585. Mostly destroyed by an earthquake in 1912.