Saratov is located in the southeastern part of Central Russia on the right bank of the Volga River. The city stretches along the Volga for 50 km, it is surrounded by several mountains of the Volga Upland with heights up to 250 m.
The first settlement on the site of modern Saratov was supposedly founded in 700 BC. fugitive Greek Hellenes and was called Gelon. At the time of the Golden Horde, Saratov was the third most important city of the Khanate and was called Uvek. In the 13th century, the city was destroyed, and a little later, the Tatar settlement of Sarytau was re-founded here. In 1590, the Saratov fortress was built on the right bank of the Volga. to protect the southern part of the Russian borders and the Volga trade route. At the beginning of the 17th century, the fortress burned down and was moved to the left bank of the Volga, but in 1674, under Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, it was returned to its original place. In the 18th century, Saratov was affected several times by Cossack riots, in 1774 the troops of Yemelyan Pugachev came here and the city was partially destroyed. In 1797 Saratov became the center of the Saratov province.
For a long time, Saratov and its environs were the place of settlement of the Volga Germans. In the first years of the 19th century, a German settlement arose in the city. By the end of the 19th century through Saratov railway tracks were laid in the center of the state, which made it one of the largest shopping centers in the Middle and Lower Volga region. At the beginning of the 20th century, industry developed rapidly in Saratov. In 1924, the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of the Volga Germans was formed here. In 1941, the republic was liquidated, and the Germans were resettled far to the east. During the Cold War, Saratov was a closed city, numerous defense enterprises were located here. After the collapse of the USSR, it became a major cultural and industrial center of Russia.
The historical part of the city is located in the Volzhsky district. Here, along the Volga River, the Cosmonauts Embankment stretches.. This is a great place for walking. From the embankment to the other side of the Volga to the city of Engels, the famous Saratov bridge was laid, which, at the time of construction in 1965, was the longest bridge in Europe (2803.7 m). The width of its carriageway is 12 m. At the beginning of the embankment there is a monument to Yuri Gagarin, who studied in Saratov and attended the local flying club. Not far from here lies Lipki Park. The park covers an area of 4.7 hectares, which is crossed by many alleys.
According to ezhoushan, the main attraction of the Volzhsky district is Museum Square. Holy Trinity Cathedral rises on the square. Its construction fell on the period from the end of the 17th century to the beginning of the 18th century. It was a long process – at first the temple was built of wood, but it suffered from fires more than once, and in the 18th century it was decided to build it in stone. The new cathedral was erected in the Moscow baroque style, in 1712 refectory rooms and an open gallery around the upper church were added to it, and in 1723 a bell tower was added.
Next to the cathedral is the Saratov Regional Museum of Local Lore. This is one of the oldest local history museums in Russia, founded in 1886. The expositions of the museum are located in an old building of the early 19th century in 30 halls. Here are the departments of nature, the history of the region from ancient times, modern Saratov, the history of the Volga Germans, astronautics and departments dedicated to the figures of science and culture of the Saratov Territory and P.A. Stolypin. Especially valuable collections of the museum are collections of ethnographic clothing, household items and labor of the peoples of the Volga region: Russians, Mordovians, Chuvashs, Tatars, Ukrainians, German colonists; archeological collection, collection of edged weapons, collection of cult items of various religious denominations, collection of the only Museum of Famine in Russia (1921-1924), entomological collection of Professor N.L. Sakharov, a collection of the socio-political and revolutionary movement of the late 19th – early 20th centuries, the memorial collection of P.A. Stolypin and a collection of posters. Chernyshevsky Street is located not far from the Museum Square., on which stands a number of mansions of the 19th-20th centuries in the style of Russian classicism. Also here is the State Museum of K.A. Fedina. The museum of the famous Russian writer was opened in 1981 in the building where the Sretensky Primary School was once located, where Fedin studied. Now the archive of the writer is presented here. Next to the Fedin Museum is the house-museum of N.G. Chernyshevsky. The museum complex includes the memorial house of the Chernyshevsky family, the house of the Pypin family, where N.G. Chernyshevsky, and the building of the literary exposition of the museum. The opening of the museum took place in 1921. By visiting it, you will get acquainted with the life and work of a democratic revolutionary, see collections of Chernyshevsky’s manuscripts, family documents, personal items, books and photographs.
Of the sights of the Volga region, the temple of the icon of the Mother of God “Satisfy my sorrows” is also interesting. It is a copy of the Moscow St. Basil’s Cathedral. The largest square in the city, Theater Square, is located on the territory of the district. There is a monument to the fighters of the Great October Socialist Revolution, the building of the Opera and Ballet Theater named after N.G. Chernyshevsky (one of the oldest opera houses in Russia), the chapel of the icon of the Mother of God “Life-Giving Spring” (late 20th century) and the Saratov State Art Museum named after A.N. Radishchev. The Art Museum became the first public art gallery in Russia. It was opened in 1885 on the basis of the collection, which was formed by the grandson of A.N. Radishcheva, professor of painting A.N. Bogolyubov. Here are paintings, sculptures and objects of decorative and applied art of the 13th-20th centuries. The collections of paintings and drawings by A.P. Bogolyubov and the works of Saratov V.E. Borisov-Musatov, P.N. Kuznetsova and K.S. Petrov-Vodkin.