Turkmenistan Population, Main Cities and Geography

By | January 27, 2023

Turkmenistan: population, cities


According to Countryaah website, Turkmenistan has about 6.7 million residents.

Ethnic composition

77% of the residents of Turkmenistan are Turkmen, 9% Uzbeks, 7% Russians, 2% Kazakhs, 1% Tatars, 1% each of Armenians, Azerbaijanis, Beludis and 0.5% Ukrainians.


affiliation About 90% of the Turkmens belong to Islam. There are also Christians as well as small Jewish and Baha’i communities.

National languages

Turkmen and Russian. Turkmen is one of the Turkic languages and is closely related to Turkish and Azerbaijani, among others.

Capital, other cities

The capital of Turkmenistan is Ashgabat, with a population of approximately 950,000. According to Abbreviation Finder, TKM stands for Turkmenistan in English. Click to see other meanings of this 3-letter acronym. Other cities worth mentioning are:

– Dashhowuz with around 165,400 residents

Nebitdag with around 108,000 residents

Chärjew with around 203,000 residents

Mary with around 123,000 residents

Turkmenistan: geography, map

Turkmenistan is located in the southern part of Central Asia, on the Caspian Sea. Check topmbadirectory for politics, flags, famous people, animals and plants of Turkmenistan. The country is divided into the following landscapes:

  • ForestAbout 8% of the country is forested area.
  • Fields and fieldsAbout 2% of the land is used as arable land or fields, especially for growing cotton, fruit, vegetables and corn.
  • DesertAbout 85% of the area is covered by the Kara Kum Desert.
  • MountainsIn Turkmenistan are the Kopet Dag Mountains and the Gissar Mountains.

National borders

Turkmenistan has a total land border of 3,651 km.

The country borders on four states with the following border lengths:

  • Afghanistan with a length of around 744 km,
  • Kazakhstan with a length of around 379 km,
  • Iran with a length of around 992 km and
  • Uzbekistan with a length of around 1,621 km.

Turkmenistan has no access to the open sea, but has a coastline to the Caspian Sea with a length of 1,768 km.

Longitude and latitude

Turkmenistan extends over the following geographical latitude (abbreviation Δφ) and geographical longitude (abbreviation Δλ):

Δφ = from 32 ° to 42 ° north latitude Δλ = from 52 ° to 66 ° east longitude

You can find detailed information on this subject under Longitude and Latitude.

Legal time

For Turkmenistan, the following value applies to Central European Time (CET), i.e. the time (without summer time) in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. A minus sign means that it is earlier there, a plus sign that it is later than CET:

Δt (CET) = + 3 h

Further and detailed explanations of the time can be found under Time zones, time.

The highest point of the sun in Ashgabat

Ashgabat lies at a northern latitude of around φ = 38 °.

When the sun or its image point is at the northern tropic, i.e. at δ = 23.5 °, summer begins in Ashgabat; this is June 21st. Accordingly, for the highest position of the sun at noon, according to Eq. 1 (see position of the sun):

38 ° = (90 ° – h) + 23.5 °


H = 75.5 °

This is the highest level above the horizon (exactly: above the chimney) that the sun occupies within the year in Ashgabat.


The highest mountain in the country is the Gora Ayribaba, with a height of 3,139 m.

Other high mountains are:

  • Gora Reza with a height of 2,942 m
  • Gora Masinev with a height of 2,335 m
  • Gora Tagarev with a height of 2,246 m.


The longest river in the country is the Amu Darya with a length of around 2,580 km.

Other rivers in the country are:

The Atrak, the Amudarja, the Murgab and the Tedschen as well as the man-made Karakumskiy Canal with a length of 1,400 km.


Caspian Sea

Turkmenistan borders the Caspian Sea to the west. This body of water, also known as Caspisee, is actually not a sea, but the largest lake in the world. It is not a sea because it has no natural connection to the oceans. It is only called the sea because of its gigantic size.

The lake extends between West Asia and Eastern Europe and borders not only on Azerbaijan, but also on Russia, Kazakhstan, Iran and Turkmenistan. With an area of around 386,400 km², the Caspian Sea is the largest land-enclosed body of water in the world. Its extension between north and south is 1,200 kilometers, while the east-west extension is 435 kilometers.

Of the many islands, which are mostly rather small and uninhabited, some off Azerbaijan because of their oil deposits are of greater importance. Examples of this are Bulla Island or Pirallahı Island. The largest island in Baku Bay is Nargin. A Soviet military base used to be located here. Other large lakes in Turkmenistan are the Sarikamisch Lake and the Karakum Lake.

Turkmenistan Population