Undoubtedly, the most beautiful city in the Czech Republic is Prague. There are many excursions with sightseeing of the capital.
At the beginning of the 19th century, Bernardo Volzano counted 103 towers in Prague and thus the city acquired the name “City of a Hundred Towers”. There are currently over 500 of them! The center and the historical part of the city are Hradcany (the complex of the Prague Kremlin) on the left bank of the Vltava River, the colorful Mala Strana, and on the right bank – the romantic and mysterious Old Town (Stare Mesto) and the New Town (Nové Mesto), which is the commercial heart of Prague. These historical sites, plus Vysehrad and the Jewish Ghetto, have been listed as a UNESCO World Cultural Heritage Site.
Old City, founded in the tenth century. and originally walled with thirteen towers, of which only the Powder Tower has survived, is a real open-air museum. Its main objects are located on the Old Town Square – the real “heart of Prague”, and on the narrow cobbled streets running in all directions from it. On the square itself stands the Old Town Hall, decorated with the famous medieval astronomical clock (1410), on which archangels and funny figures of mythical characters appear every hour, moving to the beat of the clock. Nearby is the Cathedral of the Virgin before Tyn (1365) with two spiers and the grave of Tycho Brahe, as well as a monument to the national hero of the Czech Republic Jan Hus, staged in 1915 on the anniversary of the 500th anniversary of his death. It is also home to the Clementinum, once a Jesuit college and now the State Library, which holds over three million volumes. After Prague Castle, this is the largest historical building in the city. On the right is the Museum of Smetana, from the terrace of which offers the best view of the historical part of the city in Prague.
According to Top-mba-universities, Czech Republic.nearby is the neoclassical Stavovsky Theater (1783). At the beginning of Wenceslas Square – another of the most famous squares in Prague, there is a statue of St. Wenceslas (X century), the patron saint of Bohemia. In 1232-1234. within the city walls, the so-called Havelsky city was built, the size of which can be judged by the wonderful arches with ribbed cross vaults on Havelskaya Street. The foundation of another attraction of Prague, the monastery of St. Anezka, dates back to the same time.
Prague Castle (Hradcany) is the third chronologically Prague district, stretching along the top of a hill on the high left bank of the Vltava. Here is the majestic Prague (formerly Royal) Castle – the largest fortress in the Czech Republic, the historical, political and cultural center of Prague and the whole country, founded in the 9th century. One of Hradcany’s favorite places among tourists is the Premonstratensian Strahov Monastery on Pogorzelec (founded in 1140, rebuilt in the 17th century) with the Museum of Czech Literature (1679). On the territory of the monastery there are the majestic churches of St. Roch and the Ascension of the Virgin, as well as the famous Baroque library, which contains more than 30 thousand manuscripts, incunabula and books. Gradchanskaya Square, which lies at the entrance to the Kremlin, has still retained its medieval layout, although after the great fire of 1541 its building has changed radically. On the square in the Schwarzenberg-Lobkowitz Palace (1563) there is now the Military History Museum, and on the opposite side of the square is the Sternberg Palace (XVII-XVIII centuries) with the National Gallery, which has a large collection of European art.
Inside the Prague Castle from Hradcany Square are the front gates. The famous Teresian Palace, built in the style of Viennese classicism, is located in the first (“Honorary”) courtyard of the Castle. The Matyas Gate leads to the second courtyard – the first baroque construction in Prague (1614). There is a chapel of the Holy Cross (1763) and two fountains – in the Baroque style and a modern one (1967), as well as a well with a forged domed lattice – a work of the Renaissance (1719). In the third courtyard (the oldest part of Prague Castle) is the famous St. Vitus Cathedral – the “visiting card of Prague”, an impressive Gothic building, the oldest part of which is considered the chapel of St. Wenceslas, in which this “folk Czech saint” was buried in 932,
An integral part of the architectural complex of the square is the Gothic equestrian statue of St. George (1373) and the Basilica of St. George (Jiri) 1142 in the Romanesque style – the first Benedictine monastery in the Czech Republic. The basilica houses a rich collection of Czech paintings from Gothic to Baroque. In the southern part there is also the Old Royal Palace (XV century).
In the Royal Garden of the Kremlin is the Summer Palace of Queen Anne (“Belvedere”, 1538-64) – the best example of Italian Renaissance architecture. In front of it there is a “Singing Fountain”, the falling drops of which supposedly repeat the ringing of Prague bells. The ancient Powder Bridge, originally wooden, led across the moat to the garden outside Prague Castle. At the entrance to the bridge there is a tower, which now houses a permanent exhibition of art crafts from the time of Rudolf II and an exhibition on the history of the Powder Tower itself – one of the oldest buildings in the capital. Nearby is the building of the Lion’s Court (1583), where forest predators were kept during the time of Rudolf II.
The Mala Strana area was built up in the 17th-18th centuries. under the walls of the Prague Castle around the rectangular Lesser Town Square with the wonderful Church of St. Mikulas towering above it (1755) – one of the main places of worship in Prague overlooking the Old Town Square. Next to it is the Church of the Virgin Triumphant (1628), which houses a wax figure of Jesus, also dating from the 16th century. Among the many magnificent palaces, Wallenstein Palace, located on the square of the same name, also stands out. The bridge tower of the palace offers a magnificent view of the city and Charles Bridge, which connects the Lesser Town part of the city with the Old Town, built in 1357 and decorated with 24 statues of saints (dating from the 18th century). Visegrad (Visegrad) attracts with its Visegrad fortress (XVII century), the beautiful Romanesque rotunda of St. Martin and the Slavia cemetery next to the Church of St. Peter and Paul with double towers. Many prominent people of the country are buried here, including composers Smetana and Dvorak. The Prague Ghetto is now part of the Prague Jewish Museum. The Staronov synagogue (1270) in the early Gothic style is one of the oldest in Europe. Nearby is the pink building of the Jewish town hall with a picturesque clock tower (XVI century), and a little lower along the street. Khrbitova – Clausen synagogue, built in 1694 (you must cover your head before entering).
Loreta is another “tourist Mecca” of the capital. The Capuchin Monastery is located on Loretan Square, on the territory of which Loreta itself is located – a pilgrimage site designed by the Italian architect Giovanni Baptista de Orsi. The “Loretan Treasury” is also exhibited here, in which artistic products and liturgical objects of the 16th-18th centuries are exhibited, including the “Sun of Prague” – a diamond monstrance, the rays of which are adorned with 6,222 diamonds. Prague has many more modern sights. Petrin – a large hill in the center of Prague, on which there is a park, entertainment facilities, a monastery, an observatory, as well as an observation tower (“Eiffel Tower”, 1891), which can be reached by funicular. Troja – remote, but one of the most prestigious and green areas of Prague, with a palace and a zoo. Troyan Castle (1685) – a magnificent palace with a well-kept early baroque park. The castle houses a permanent collection of Czech art from the 19th century. Opposite the castle, there is a zoo where open enclosures for animals allow you to freely observe the almost natural life of animals. There are a large number of theaters and concert venues: the People’s Theatre, the State Opera, the Black Theatre, the Puppet Theatre, the Laterna Magica Theatre, the Spiral Theatre, Rudolfinum (Dvořák Concert Hall), Municipal House (Smetana Hall), “House at the Stone Bell” and others. You can listen to chamber music in the church of St. Havel, in the Clementinum Cathedral on Mariana Square or in the church of St. Martin. Organ concerts are held every evening in the church behind the Charles monument near the Charles Bridge.
There are many ancient castles and palaces around the capital. An excursion to Karlštejn (33 km southwest of Prague) will introduce you to a fairy-tale castle with towers erected by Emperor Charles IV in the middle of the 14th century.
Excursion to Krivoklat (40 km from Prague) – one of the most interesting Gothic castles in Central Europe. It is located in the picturesque valley of the Berounka River, in the best hunting grounds in the Czech Republic. The exceptionally beautiful area surrounding the castle is protected by UNESCO as a natural reserve.
Excursion to Kutna Hora (66 km east of Prague) – the second largest city in Bohemia after Prague. The historic city center is compact enough to get around on foot. The city is home to the Gothic Church of Our Lady, the Church of St. James (1330), behind which is the Gothic Royal Mint (silver coins began to be minted here as early as 1300), the Hradek Mining Museum is one of the best in Europe, where there is a permanent exhibition, telling about the mining of silver, which made Kutna Hora rich and famous. Not far from Kutná Hora is the Tasice glass factory, where part of the silver production has been preserved in manufactory form.
Excursion to Pilsen – the capital of Western Bohemia. In the city center there is a Gothic cathedral with the highest church tower in the Czech Republic (103 m.). The extensive complex of Renaissance monuments of the city is complemented by numerous museums and galleries. But the city gained particular fame thanks to the plant that produces the world-famous and exceptional quality beer “Prazdroj”, so a tour to Pilsen will be interesting for beer lovers, as it involves visiting the brewhouse, ancient cellars and tasting freshly brewed beer.
On the very border with Germany, on the Ohře River, there is the beautiful city of Cheb – one of those “medieval” cities of the Czech Republic where the German flavor has been preserved. When visiting the city of Cheb, the most interesting is the Romanesque castle (XII century), built by Frederick I Barbarossa himself. You should definitely visit the main square of the city – Namesti-Krale-Jiri, admire the sloping roofs of houses in the Gothic style (XVI century) lined with red tiles and the impressive Gothic building of the Church of St. Nicholas with many sculptures and a central entrance dated 1270.
City of Brno began to be built around the ancient castle of Špilberg (Špilberk), erected in the 13th century as a powerful fortress to protect Moravia from attacks from the south, later converted into a Renaissance castle, and in the 18th century turned into one of the most terrible prisons. Be sure to visit the casemates of the castle and admire the beautiful view from the ramparts. There are a huge number of interesting places in Brno, one of which is the central and largest square of the city – Freedom Square, formerly called the Lower Market, St. John’s Church (St. John’s Church) with painted ceilings, beautiful altarpieces and an old Vegetable Market, Capuchin Square, St. Peter’s Basilica and Pavel with a clock that strikes noon at 11 o’clock (in memory of the events of 1645, when the ringer saved the city during the siege by the Swedes, ringing noon an hour earlier). Be sure to visit the majestic Spielberg, the Augustinian Monastery, the Moravian Gallery of Applied Arts and the Exhibition Center, where international exhibitions are held.
To the south of Brno is the Empire castle in Zidlochovice, and to the east – the Prace pantheon, as well as the Slavkov castle, known mainly as Austerlitz. It was here that the bloody “battle of the three emperors” took place – the battle of Austerlitz. North of Brno, on the Drahanska hill, there is the region most visited by tourists – the Moravian Karst, where all kinds of karst phenomena are concentrated in a relatively small area (120 sq. Km.) – canyons, grottoes, deep dips, underground lakes and rivers, as well as more than 400 caves. Travelers here will enjoy a magnificent walk through the caves and a fascinating boat ride along the underground river and lake, located at a depth of 40 m, to the almost 140-meter Macocha abyss (the largest Central European abyss of this type). The Balkarka cave is open for viewing throughout the year, Punkevni caves are famous for their stalactite “decorations”, which also have no analogues in Central Europe. Other interesting caves in the region are Katerinska and Słupsko-Sosuvska, where traces of prehistoric people have been found.
Excursion to Cesky Krumlov – a small medieval town located in the very south of the country, 25 km. from České Budějovice, and one of the most colorful cities in Europe, practically unchanged since the 18th century. City Excursion to Trebon (1262), lying 20 km. north of České Budějovice, also retained its original layout with forts, gates and bastions from the 16th century. The Trebon fortress (XIV century) was subsequently rebuilt into a castle, which is famous for its historical archive.
Excursion to the town of Chlum u Trebon with a majestic baroque castle, a Czech crystal glass factory and the popular Heitman Pond (80 ha). It lies 12 km. southeast of the city of Trebon.
Excursion to the city of Melnik, where two rivers join – the romantic Laba and Vltava, which then, in the north Germany, will become the Elbe. Here, on a steep bank, there is a Renaissance castle (1554) with an art gallery and a museum. Interesting is the Church of Peter and Paul in the late Gothic style, which lies next to the picturesque central square.
Excursion to the castle Hluboko nad Vltavou, located on a cliff 83 meters high, not far from the town of Podgraby, which is mentioned in written sources as early as 1285. In 1838, construction of a new castle began here, similar to the old English castle in Windsor.
Excursion to the castle Konopiste is located in Benešov, 50 km. south of Prague. The castle was built in the 14th century, and the Renaissance palace in the 16th century. Nearby is a large English park and rose garden, as well as a beautiful lake surrounded by a large forest.
Excursion to the royal fortress Zvikov, towering on a mountain spur above the confluence of the Vltava and Otava rivers.
Excursion to the city of Mikulov, located in the very south of Moravia. It is considered one of the most picturesque, but still little-known cities in the region. Mikulov and its mighty castle are located on a hill in the center of the Palava wine region, a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve. There are many impressive monuments of architecture and history, but it is most popular for its excellent white wines.
Excursion to Poděbrady, in which the main monument is the Poděbrady Castle, erected on the site of a Gothic fortified settlement of a small estate nobleman. 21 km. to the west of the city is the town of Přerov nad Labem with the open-air Polabi Village Museum. To the northwest of Poděbrady lies Nymburk with the Gothic brick church of St. Elijah and with a unique medieval fortification system, from which real water ditches have been preserved.
Excursion to the city of Nizhbor, which is famous for the glass factory “Rukl”. Here, the secrets of the production of real “Bohemian glass” will be revealed.
For lovers of the wonders of nature, a trip to the Konepruska caves with many corridors, labyrinths, bizarre stalactites and stalagmites will be interesting.