Capital of Greece Athens.
This is a city that gave the world democracy, the culture of antiquity and left a significant mark on world history.
Here, antiquity coexists with modernity, and Byzantine churches with neoclassicism of the 19th century. The main attraction of the capital is the Acropolis, which has become a symbol of ancient Greece, and its pearl – the Parthenon temple. On the territory of the Acropolis, the temple of Nike Apteros, the theater of Herodes Attica, the first theater of Ancient Greece – the theater of Dionysus, the Erechtheion (one of the oldest sanctuaries of the Acropolis, in the courtyard of which the sacred olive tree, donated to the city by Athena, grew, and a salty spring, carved by the trident of Poseidon, beat).
In addition to the Acropolis, you should visit the ancient Agora – the square, which was the political, cultural and commercial center of the city during the democratic rule; Plaku is the historical center of Athens; Lycabettus hill with the chapel of George the Victorious and Pnyx hill, on which in the 5th – 6th centuries. public meetings took place; as well as the most famous museums of Athens – the National Archaeological Museum, the Piraeus Archaeological Museum, the National Art Gallery, the Byzantine Museum, the Acropolis Museum. In Athens there is the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, the Parliament, the oldest buildings of the National Academy, the University of Athens and the National Library, Omonia (Concord) Square.
In the northwest of the Peloponnese is the legendary city Olympia. According to Top-mba-universities, Greece.it was the main center of the cult of Zeus throughout the country, in honor of which the Olympic Games were held here every four years since prehistoric times. The architectural ensemble of the city was mainly formed in the 7th-4th centuries. BC e. Olympia fell into decline with the victory of Christianity, and in 426 AD. e. was burned by order of the Roman emperor Theodosius II. The few surviving buildings and statues were destroyed in 522 and 551. earthquake. The first excavations were carried out in 1829 by French archaeologists, and systematic ones began in 1875. As a result, more than 130 statues, about 13,000 bronze objects, and up to 10,000 inscriptions on bronze tablets were discovered. On the sacred site of Olympian Zeus today you can see the remains of the sanctuary of Pelops, the temples of Hera, Zeus, the mother of the gods, Zeus Sosipolis and Ilithia, 12 treasures. Outside the sacred precinct are the ruins of a bouleuterium, a classical stadium, a Hellenistic palaestra and a gymnasium. There is a museum in Olympia, where the monuments found during the excavations are collected. Since the revival of the Games in 1896, the Olympic flame has been lit again in the ancient sanctuary. From here he makes his journey to the venue of the next Olympic Games.
Phokis is only a few kilometers away from Athens, making it an ideal place for day trips. The most famous sightseeing places are Delphi (“the navel of the Earth”); the ancient cities of Amfissa and Galaxidi; Itea with its beaches; the national villages of Rumeli, which are located on the green slopes of the hills and on the beautiful beaches of the Gulf of Corinth. Here you can visit the Temple of Apollo, theater, stadium, museum, wash yourself with the water of the Kastalsky spring (according to legend – rejuvenating). One of the most important historical events of Phocis was the participation of the Phocians in the Trojan War. Another important moment in history is the creation of the Amphictyony of Delphi, a coalition of 22 cities. Nature and ancient ruins mix here in an amazing way, emphasizing the beauty of each other.
At the southern tip of the Attica Peninsula, at Cape Sounion, there is a majestic monument of antiquity – the Temple of Poseidon. The temple was built in the middle of the 5th century. BC e. at a height of 60 m and in ancient times served as the first sign of the proximity of the home to sailors. Of the 34 columns of the temple of Poseidon, only 15 have survived. All of them belong to the Doric order. About 400 m from the temple of Poseidon was the sanctuary of Athena of Sunia, the ruins of which are definitely worth a visit. Here you will see the foundations of two temples. One of them was erected in the 5th century. BC. The history of another, small temple is still the subject of scientific disputes. According to one hypothesis, the ruins belong to an earlier sanctuary, also dedicated to Athena and built in 600-550 BC. BC. Other experts are of the opinion that this is the sanctuary of Artemis.
Mycenae is a city and fortress in the northern part of the Peloponnese. In the second half of the II millennium BC. here was one of the centers of the most ancient civilization, called the Mycenaean. In Mycenae are the famous “Lion’s Gate”, the tomb of Agamemnon, the royal palace.
The ruins of another Greek city of the 4th c. BC. – Epidaurus – are located on the Argolis peninsula in the eastern part of the Peloponnese. The core of the local architectural ensemble was a complex of buildings dedicated to the god of healing and Apollo’s son Asclepius. This ensemble was located in a pine grove, because it was believed that thanks to the healing air and the general beauty of the landscape, it gives people health. The ensemble included a Doric temple of Asclepius richly decorated with marble sculpture with a statue of the god himself, a round tholos building with a colonnade, a two-nave portico, and several public buildings. However, almost nothing of this has survived to this day. Only a few surviving architectural details can be seen in the local and Athenian museums.
The amphitheater of Epidaurus is much better preserved – a stone amphitheater for 1400 seats with 55 rows, which rise almost 23 meters above the stage. The theater in Epidaurus is still famous for its excellent acoustics. Sitting on the upper bench, you can, without raising your voice, communicate with a person on the other side of the amphitheater. And if you speak at the central site, then you can hear everything without microphones and amplifiers. The amphitheater was built in the 4th century. BC. architect Polyclitus. Polyclitus built similar amphitheaters in the cities of Delphi and Olympia. From the beginning of the 50s. 20th century festivals are held annually in this theater, attracting the most famous performers from all over the world.
Achillion Palace on the island of Corfu built for the Empress of Austria Elizabeth, who, having visited the island for the first time 30 years earlier, was forever fascinated by it. The construction of this famous building was completed in 1892. The Palace of Knossos on the island of Crete represents one of the most ancient civilizations on earth – the Minoan. Only the ruins of this remarkable monument have survived to this day.
In the northern half of Greece, the Thessaloniki tour is the most popular. The unique medieval monastery complex of Meteora is located 160 km southwest of the city.. This is the cradle of Orthodoxy and the center of monasticism. The monasteries stand on high, precipitous cliffs, along which a road is currently laid, and in the past they could be entered either by high ladders or with the help of a manual lift in a wicker basket. The monasteries are famous for their collections of icons, ancient manuscripts, art objects. At the foot of the mountains is the city of Kalambaka, which has long become a tourist center.
Also in the north of Greece, you can visit the Chalkidiki peninsula with magnificent nature and the world’s only monastic republic of Athos, the city of Kastoria , which is one of the leading European centers for the production of high-quality fur products; the place of residence of the ancient gods – Mount Olympus.