According to Top-mba-universities, Stockholm is the capital of Sweden. It is located on 14 islands off the southeastern coast of the Baltic Sea, and in the northwest the city is washed by Lake Mälaren. All islands are connected by bridges. For the first time in history, Stockholm is mentioned in 1252. In 1634 the city became the capital of Sweden. In 1998, Stockholm was elected European Capital of Culture. Stockholm Old Town areafor over 750 years. There are many small cafes and shops in the narrow cobbled streets. The main attractions are the Cathedral of St. Nicholas – the main church of the city, where Swedish monarchs are crowned on the throne; Riddaholmskaya Church – the burial place of Swedish kings and aristocrats; the Royal Palace (the largest of such palaces in the world), which is the residence of the Swedish kings, near it there is a daily change of the royal guard, with a military band, to the beat of drums; City Hall “Stadhuset”, where the Nobel Prize ceremonies take place. The City Hall is located on the island of Kungsholmen. It was built in the style of national romanticism in 1923.
Of interest is the Central Palace Complex of the Swedish Royal Court on the island of Drottningholm (Drottningholm Palace), 11 km west of Stockholm. The palace contains many pieces of art and furnishings, is surrounded by fountains and parks, and is still one of the official residences of the royal family. One of the best preserved 18th century theaters in the world, the Drottningholm Royal Theatre, is located here.
Very interesting Museum of the ship “Vasa”. “Vasa” was conceived as the most powerful ship of that time. Its construction began in 1625 by order of King Gustav. The weight of the ship was 1210 tons, and the crew consisted of 445 people. August 10, 1628, when lowering into the water, he immediately sank. In 1961, the ship was raised and restored, and in 1990 a museum was opened. In the museum, in addition to the ship itself, there are expositions of the operation to raise the ship, about life on board and about naval battles of those times.
The Historical Museum presents many archaeological items, among which the collection of gold objects found in the graves and caches of the Vikings, as well as an exhibit from the Middle Ages: a case with precious stones containing the skull of St. Elizabeth of Thuringia, are especially popular.
The National Museum of Art contains collections of paintings, sculptures, drawings, graphics from the Middle Ages to the 20th century. Here are the works of Cezanne, Goya, Rembrandt and Rubens.
In addition, it is worth visiting the Museum of Fairy Tales “Junibacken”, the Museum of Aquatic Flora and Fauna “Aquaria” and the Ethnographic Open Air Museum – Skansen, which is located on 30 hectares of land. Here you can see more than 150 houses and buildings of the past, most of which date back to the 18th and 19th centuries. On the island of Lidingo, northeast of Stockholm, is the former home and sculpture garden of the outstanding sculptor Carl Milles, where the exhibits are located on the columns of the garden terraces. In Stockholm even there is a national city park – “Royal Ecological Park”. It is the world’s first urban national park.
On the island of Bjorko, which lies 50 km from Stockholm, the excavations of the country’s first city – Birka are very interesting. Today it is included in the list of objects under the protection of UNESCO. An ancient fortress, city ramparts, more than a thousand graves of the Viking era were excavated here, and the Viking Museum also operates in Birka.
If you go northeast from the capital of Sweden, then you can get to the city of Sigtuna – This is the first capital of the Swedish state, founded in 980 AD. e. Here you can see the excavated old streets, the tower of St. Lars (1100), the Gothic church of St. Mary (13th century), Skokloster Castle and Rosersberg Palace, which has been one of the royal residences since 1762. Uppsala is located
70 km from Stockholm. Here in 1477 the first and largest University in Scandinavia was founded. Also in Uppsala is the oldest church in Sweden – the Gothic Cathedral, the construction of which began in 1260. Its height reaches 120 m. Here are the graves of many famous Swedes: King Gustav I (Vase), Carl Linnaeus and the philosopher Emmanuel Swedenborg, as well as the remains of St. Eric, the patron saint Sweden. The cathedral complex includes the Cathedral Museum, the Church of the Holy Trinity and the Uppsala Castle, which now houses the Art Museum, the governor’s residence and the Vase Vinettes wax museum. Another attraction of the city is the house-museum of Carl Linnaeus “Hammarby” with a small botanical garden and the Linnaeus Gardens. In the north of the city, 5 km from it, there is the Old Town “Dizagarden”, which is an open-air museum. Here you can see the Old Uppsala Church of the 12th century and burial mounds, in which burials were made in the period from the 4th to the 12th centuries. 3 km southwest of Uppsala lies the “Mound of King Bjorn” – the burial place of noble Scandinavians of the “Bronze Age”, and 4 km north of Uppsala interesting “boat”.
The northern cities of Sweden, the cities of Lapland are very interesting. The city of Jokmokk is the cultural center of the Ami people, whose history can be found in the Aitte Museum with a unique collection of folk art.
The northernmost city in Sweden is Kiruna, it is located above the Arctic Circle and is often called the “city of white nights”. The Kiruna Samgard Museum with an exposition dedicated to the culture of the Sami people and the Kiruna Church are of interest here. The church was built in 1912. The free-standing bell tower in front is supported by buttresses and the tombstone of the founder of Kirun. Above the main door of the church is a relief dedicated to a group of Sami under the clouds in the sky. In 2001, the church was recognized as the most beautiful building Sweden.
In the vicinity of Kiruna, there are several National Parks, and not far from it is the highest point in Sweden – Mount Kebnekaise (2111 m). In the vicinity of Kiruna, an Ice Hotel is built annually in winter, which will be especially interesting for children.
The second largest city in the country – Gothenburg – is located on the banks of the Kattegat and is the main port of the country, as well as the residence of the bishop. Of the sights of the city, one can single out the Town Hall (1672); the oldest building in Gothenburg – the artillery arsenal of Krunhuset (1643), where a historical exhibition is now operating; the building of the Stock Exchange, built in the 19th century; the 62-meter Naval Tower and Maritime Center next to the port; church of Christina (17th century); House of the East India Company (1750), which now houses the Historical and Archaeological Museums; Fort Elfsborg; Getaplatsen square with Poseidon fountain. From this square begins the main street of the city – Avenue, there are many shops and restaurants, pubs and cafes, cinemas and entertainment centers. Along the Avenue also stand the Opera House and the Concert Hall, which is considered one of the best in the world.
There are 16 museums in Gothenburg, among which the most interesting are the City Museum, the Art Museum, the Ethnographic Museum, the Ross Museum (the only one in Sweden Museum of Artistic Crafts and Design), Museum of the History of Medicine, Museum of Banking, Observatory, Museum of Military History “Skansen Kronan”, Museum of Science “Experimentum”, Museum of Natural History and Museum of Navigation “Sjofarhistoriska Museumum”. Sweden ‘s largest botanical garden is located in Gothenburg, with more than 12,000 species of plants, flowers, herbaceous and forest plants from all over the world. From Gothenburg the famous Göta Canal begins, which ends in the vicinity of the city of Söderköping and connects the Kattegat and the Gulf of Bothnia. The construction of the canal began in 1810 and ended a quarter of a century later. The channel is laid through a variety of landscapes and passes through the Vanern Lake. Traveling by ship along the Göta Canal is considered one of the main excursions in Sweden.
On the shores of Lake Vattern lies the small town of Wadstena ., which is famous for Wadsten Abbey, built in honor of Saint Brigid. In the Middle Ages, the abbey became a center of pilgrimage; with the help of King Magnus, Brigid founded a monastery here. The present abbey church is built in a mixed Gothic and Revival style. Inside it are the remains of St. Brigid, medieval sculptures, as well as a unique collection of medieval art.
On the shores of Lake Wanern is the city of Lidkoping, not far from which stands Lekö Castle. Its construction began in 1298 and continued for 4 centuries. During this time, 250 halls were built in the castle, now various exhibitions are held in them every year. Lekö is surrounded by a large park, inside which there is a restaurant.
In the very south of Sweden in the resort region of Skåne is the city of Malmö . Tourists will be amazed by the variety of museums in the city, the largest of which are the Museum of History and Art and the Art Museum with an excellent collection of paintings by Russian artists. Also of interest are the Gothic church of St. Petrichiurka, built in 1319; Renaissance Town Hall (1546) and Malmehus Castle (1542). The central square of Malmö Lilla Torg is very beautiful, it is paved with cobblestones and surrounded by buildings of the 16th-18th centuries. In the very center of the city there are many parks where you can walk and relax. Through the Öresund Strait, Malmö is connected by a bridge to Copenhagen. Ystad is located near Malmö. with the Church of the Virgin Mary and the monastery of Greyfriars (13th century), which houses a museum of local history and culture.
The country’s religious capital is the ancient city of Lund. This status is confirmed by the Romanesque Cathedral, the remains of the ancient church Drottens Churcheryun, the estate of St. Maria Minor and the Renaissance royal palace. The Lund Cathedral was built in the Romanesque style, the towers of the cathedral are 55 meters high. Its interior is made of sandstone. Under the cathedral is a chapel and ornate carvings.
Northeast of Malmö is the ancient city of Kalmar, which is known for the fact that in 1397 the Kalmar Union was signed here, uniting Sweden, Norway and Denmark. The Kalmar Castle was built to sign the union. It has survived to this day and is still considered one of the most beautiful castles of the Renaissance.
Those who love the sun will definitely fall in love with the islands in the Baltic Sea – the largest island in the country Gotland (2960 sq. Km) and the island of Öland. In Viking times, Gotland was an important trading center and later the base of the Hanseatic League. Now here you can see churches of the Baltic-Gothic style, excavations of the Bronze Age under huge mounds of stone, as well as the famous Gotlandic memorial steles, which date back to the 5th century. But mostly people go to Gotland to sunbathe and swim, there are also many fishing villages that attract lovers of “rural rest”. The capital of Gotland is the city Wisby . In 1995, the city was included in the UNESCO World Heritage List. From those times when the city was an important trading center, today there are ruins of the fortress wall, about 40 towers, the Domchurka church, the dilapidated churches of St. Nicholas, St. Lars and St. Karina, the church of St. Mary and the ruins of Wiesborg Castle.
The Archaeological Museum is very interesting, which shows the treasures of the Viking Age, and also tells about the history of the island. The local Botanical Garden is a favorite vacation spot for tourists and citizens. Every year in August, a “week of the Middle Ages” is held in Gotland. Visby ‘s main street, the Strandgatan promenade, hosts a medieval fair. It offers a variety of musical performances, festivals and even jousting tournaments.
The island of Öland is located between Gotland and the mainland, with which it is connected by a 6-kilometer bridge. The locals called this island “the land of windmills” because there are about 350 of them. In addition, Öland is known for its sandy beaches and the tallest lighthouse in Sweden, “Long Jan”, which reaches a height of 42 meters.